Mirna Therapeutics
Mirna Therapeutics, Inc. (Form: 10-K, Received: 03/15/2017 06:12:25)
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UNITED STATES SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION
Washington, D.C. 20549
________________________________

FORM 10-K
________________________________
 
 Annual report pursuant to Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934
For the year ended December 31, 2016
or
  Transition report pursuant to Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934
Commission File Number:  001-37566
Mirna Therapeutics, Inc.
(Exact name of registrant as specified in its charter)
 
Delaware
    
26-1824804
(State or other jurisdiction of
incorporation or organization)
 
(I.R.S. Employer
Identification No.)
 
1250 South Capital of Texas Highway
Austin, TX 78746
(Address of principal executive offices and zip code)
(512) 901-0950
(Registrant’s telephone number, including area code)
 
Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Act:
 
Title of each class
    
Name of exchange on which registered
Common Stock, par value $0.001 per share
 
NASDAQ Stock Market LLC
 
Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(g) of the Act: None
 
Indicate by check mark if the registrant is a well-known seasoned issuer, as defined in Rule 405 of the Securities Act.  Yes ◻  No  þ
Indicate by check mark if the registrant is not required to file reports pursuant to Section 13 or Section 15(d) of the Exchange Act of 1934 (the “Exchange Act”).  Yes ◻  No þ
 
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant (1) has filed all reports required to be filed by Section 13 or 15(d) of the Exchange Act during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to file such reports) and (2) has been subject to such filing requirements for the past 90 days.  
Yes  þ  No ◻
 
Indicate by check mark whether the Registrant has submitted electronically and posted on its corporate website, if any, every Interactive Data File required to be submitted and posted pursuant to Rule 405 of Regulation S-T  during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the Registrant was required to submit and post such files).  Yes  þ  No ◻
 
Indicate by check mark if disclosure of delinquent filers pursuant to Item 405 of Regulation S-K is not contained herein, and will not be contained, to the best of registrant’s knowledge, in definitive proxy or information statements incorporated by reference in Part III of this Form 10-K or any amendment to this Form 10-K.  ¨
 
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a non-accelerated filer, or a smaller reporting company. See the definitions of “large accelerated filer,” “accelerated filer,” and “smaller reporting company” in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act.
 
Large accelerated filer ◻    Accelerated filer ◻     Non-accelerated filer  þ      Smaller reporting company

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a shell company (as defined in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act).  Yes ◻ No  þ
 
The aggregate market value of the common stock held by non-affiliates computed by reference to the last reported sale price on June 30, 2016 was approximately $60.5 million.

As of March 3, 2017 , there were  20,856,693 shares of the registrant’s Common Stock outstanding.
 



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MIRNA THERAPEUTICS, INC.
TABLE OF CONTENTS
 
 
 
 
    
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Forward-Looking Statements
 
This Annual Report on Form 10-K contains forward-looking statements concerning our business, operations and financial performance and condition, as well as our plans, objectives and expectations for our business operations and financial performance and condition. Any statements contained herein that are not statements of historical facts may be deemed to be forward-looking statements. In some cases, you can identify forward-looking statements by terminology such as “aim,” “anticipate,” “assume,” “believe,” “contemplate,” “continue,” “could,” “due,” “estimate,” “expect,” “goal,” “intend,” “may,” “objective,” “plan,” “predict,” “potential,” “positioned,” “seek,” “should,” “target,” “will,” “would,” and other similar expressions that are predictions or indicate future events and future trends, or the negative of these terms or other comparable terminology. These forward-looking statements include, but are not limited to, statements regarding:
our evaluation of strategic alternatives with a goal to enhance stockholder value, including the possibility of a merger or sale of the Company;
the initiation, cost, timing, progress and results of any research and development activities;
our ability to obtain funding for our operations;
our ability to attract collaborators with development, regulatory and/or commercialization expertise;
our ability to maintain intellectual property protection for our product candidates;
regulatory developments in the United States and foreign countries;
the performance of our third-party suppliers and manufacturers;
the success of competing therapies that are or become available;
our ability to retain key scientific or management personnel;
our expectations regarding the time during which we will be an emerging growth company under the JOBS Act; and 
the accuracy of our estimates regarding expenses, future revenues, capital requirements and need for additional financing.
 
These forward-looking statements are based on management’s current expectations, estimates, forecasts, and projections about our business and the industry in which we operate and management’s beliefs and assumptions and are not guarantees of future performance or development and involve known and unknown risks, uncertainties, and other factors that are in some cases beyond our control. As a result, any or all of our forward-looking statements in this Annual Report on Form 10-K may turn out to be inaccurate. Factors that may cause actual results to differ materially from current expectations include, among other things, those listed under Item 1A. “Risk Factors” and elsewhere in this Annual Report on Form 10-K. These forward-looking statements speak only as of the date of this Annual Report on Form 10-K. Except as required by law, we assume no obligation to update or revise these forward-looking statements for any reason, even if new information becomes available in the future. Given these risks and uncertainties, you are cautioned not to place undue reliance on such forward-looking statements.


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PART I
 
ITEM 1.  BUSINESS
Overview
We are a biopharmaceutical company that has historically focused on microRNA-based oncology therapeutics, which are short ribonucleic acid, or RNA, molecules, or oligonucleotides.
Our first product candidate, MRX34, a mimic of naturally occurring microRNA 34 (miR 34) encapsulated in a liposomal nanoparticle formulation, was studied as a single agent in a Phase 1 clinical trial. In September 2016, we voluntarily halted the Phase 1 trial following multiple immune-related serious adverse events, or SAEs, observed in patients dosed with MRX34 in the trial. Subsequently, we received notification from the U.S. Food and Drug Administration, or the FDA, that the Investigational New Drug Application, or IND, for MRX34 is on full clinical hold. Following our suspension of the Phase 1 trial for MRX34 and the FDA’s clinical hold on the IND for MRX34, we discontinued development of MRX34 and our microRNA product pipeline.
In November 2016, we discontinued research and development activities to reduce operating expenses while we evaluate our strategic alternatives with a goal to enhance stockholder value, including the possibility of a merger or sale of the Company. We also initiated a plan in November 2016 to reduce personnel and expenses to preserve capital and further streamline our operations consistent with our decision to discontinue development of MRX34 and our microRNA product pipeline. We expect to devote significant time and resources to identifying and evaluating strategic alternatives, however, there can be no assurance that such activities will result in any agreements or transactions that will enhance shareholder value. Further, any strategic transaction that is completed ultimately may not deliver the anticipated benefits or enhance shareholder value.
We were incorporated in 2007 under the laws of Delaware and were maintained as a wholly‑owned subsidiary of our former parent company, Asuragen, Inc., or Asuragen, until the end of 2009, when we became an independent entity.
Our Strategy
Our corporate strategy currently is focused on pursuing strategic initiatives to enhance stockholder value. We have implemented operating cost reductions, organizational restructuring, including a recent reduction in our workforce, to reduce overall cash burn and facilitate our pursuit of strategic initiatives. We have engaged a financial and strategic advisor to explore a range of alternatives to enhance stockholder value, including but not limited to a merger or the sale of the Company. Our strategic process is both active and ongoing and includes a range of interactions with transaction counterparties. Thus, we believe it is in our stockholders’ best interest to allow sufficient opportunity to pursue and consummate one or more such transactions and to consider additional alternatives that may materialize in the future before making a decision regarding a liquidation of the Company.
Our Historical microRNA Platform
More than 10 years ago, while working at Ambion ® , our scientists discovered through extensive microRNA expression and functional assay work that microRNAs are expressed differently in cancer tissue compared to normal adjacent tissue and that several naturally occurring microRNAs function as tumor suppressors by regulating the expression of key oncogenes and preventing the development, progression and dissemination of cancer.
To enable therapeutic application of these tumor suppressor microRNAs, we pioneered technologies for creating RNA molecules that function as natural microRNAs when they enter human cells. These RNA molecules, which we call microRNA mimics, may be used to replace those tumor suppressor microRNAs that are lost, or under-expressed, in cancer cells. We pioneered the development of therapeutic miRNA mimics that feature two complementary RNA strands that are hybridized to produce a double-stranded RNA. The active strand has a sequence that is identical to a microRNA normally expressed in a cell, while the second, passenger strand is modified to facilitate proper loading of the active strand onto the cytoplasmic protein complex necessary for microRNA function inside the cells. While similar in structure, microRNA mimics are clearly differentiated from small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) through their biological heritage and activity. In contrast to the man-made sequences of siRNAs that target a single gene, microRNA mimics function like naturally occurring microRNAs to orchestrate the expression of many different genes to enable normal cell development and function. We believe our microRNA mimics have the mechanistic flexibility to be used as:
first-line agents in combination with current standards of care, including targeted therapies, immuno-oncology therapies, chemotherapies and/or radiation therapies;
monotherapies in advanced or refractory patient settings;

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monotherapies in patients who would be intolerant of current standards of care; and
monotherapies in tumor settings that do not have any approved therapies.

Delivery of microRNA Mimics to Target Tissues
Systemic delivery of oligonucleotides, including microRNAs, has been a major challenge, principally due to the fact that after intravenous administration these molecules have to overcome multiple barriers before reaching their ultimate place of action, which is the RNA-induced silencing complex (RISC) in the cytoplasm of cells.
We have evaluated a wide variety of proprietary delivery systems with our microRNA compounds for in vivo and ex vivo testing. Based on this testing, we previously selected SMARTICLES ® formulation technology, licensed from Marina Biotech, Inc. as the delivery technology for miR‑34. miR-34 was the target tumor suppressor microRNA of our first product candidate MRX34. In September 2016, the FDA placed the IND for MRX34 on full clinical hold and we have discontinued development of MRX34 and our microRNA product pipeline.
Product Pipeline
In November 2016, we discontinued research and development activities to reduce operating expenses while we evaluate our strategic alternatives with a goal to enhance stockholder value, including the possibility of a merger or sale of the Company. Prior to discontinuing our research and development activities, we were developing a pipeline of tumor suppressor microRNA mimics. Each microRNA mimic in our pipeline was designed to replicate the activity of a single tumor suppressor miRNA and regulate the expression of key oncogenes across multiple oncogenic pathways. We were granted therapeutic use patent claims related to several tumor suppressor microRNAs as well as composition of matter claims for multiple chemistries and structures.
Through execution of our in silico , in vitro and in vivo analysis of multiple tumor suppressor microRNAs we previously prioritized a pipeline of candidate molecules for further validation toward clinical candidate nomination. Before we discontinued our research and development activities in November 2016, each of these candidates was previously studied for therapeutic potential in specific cancer indications, as set forth in the table below:
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
MicroRNAPROGRAM
KEY ONCOGENE TARGETS
PATHWAYS
CANCER INDICATION
miR-215
BCL2, BMI1, DHFR, IGF, IGFR1, MDM2, PIM1, WNK1, XIAP, ZEB1/2
Cell Cycle, Apoptosis, DNA Repair, EMT
Esophageal, Kidney, Multiple Myeloma
miR-101
MYCN, EZH2, ERK2, FOS, MCL1, COX2, DNMT3A, VEGF, MET, ZEB1/2
Angiogenesis, Cell Cycle, Apoptosis, EMT, Inflammation
Bladder, Gastric, Lung, Ovarian
miR-16
BCL2, VEGF-A, Cyclin-D1, HMGA1, FGFR1, CDK6, BMI1
Apoptosis, Autophagy, Angiogenesis, EMT, Cell Cycle
Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia, Lymphoma
let-7
RAS, MYC, HMGA2, TGFBR1,MYCN, Cyclin D2, IL6, ITGB3
Cell Cycle, Angiogenesis, Cancer Stem Cell, EMT
Prostate, Pancreatic, Melanoma

MRX34
MRX34 is a double‑stranded RNA mimic of the tumor suppressor microRNA, miR‑34, encapsulated in a liposomal nanoparticle formulation called SMARTICLES. Based on preclinical data and a potential new mechanism for the treatment of cancer, we opened IND applications in the United States and Korea and initiated our first-in-human Phase 1 clinical trial, titled MRX34-101. However, in September 2016, we voluntarily halted the Phase 1 trial following multiple immune-related SAEs observed in patients dosed with MRX34 over the course of the trial. Three of these immune-related events resulted in the patient’s death. Subsequently, we received notification from the FDA that the IND for MRX34 is on full clinical hold. Following our suspension of the Phase 1 trial for MRX34 and the FDA’s clinical hold on the IND for MRX34, we discontinued development of MRX34 and our microRNA product pipeline.
Intellectual Property
We have previously worked to protect and enhance the proprietary technologies that we believed were important to our business, including seeking and maintaining patents intended to cover our products and compositions, their methods of use and

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any other inventions important to the development of our business. We have also relied on trade secrets to protect aspects of our business that are not amenable to, or that we do not consider appropriate for, patent protection.
Our Patent Portfolio
We own or in-license a portfolio of patents and patent applications that has protected various aspects of our business. The patents and patent applications that make up our patent portfolio have been primarily focused on various aspects of microRNA therapeutics. As of December 31, 2016, we own or in-licensed over 10 issued U.S. patents and over 42 pending U.S. and ex-U.S. patent applications. The expiration dates of the currently issued patents range from 2025 to 2032. We also have multiple pending patent applications that, if issued, will expire between 2025 and 2035.
Patent Term
The term of individual patents and patent applications in our portfolio will depend upon the legal term of the patents in the countries in which they are obtained. In most countries, the patent term is 20 years from the date of filing of the patent application (or parent application, if applicable). For example, if an international Patent Cooperation Treaty, or PCT, application is filed, any patent issuing from the PCT application in a specific country expires 20 years from the filing date of the PCT application. In the United States, however, if a patent was in force on June 8, 1995, or issued on an application that was filed before June 8, 1995, that patent will generally have a term that is the greater of twenty years from the filing date or 17 years from the date of issue.
Under the Hatch-Waxman Act, the term of a patent that covers an FDA-approved drug or biological product may also be eligible for patent term extension, or PTE. PTE permits restoration of a portion of the patent term of a U.S. patent as compensation for the patent term lost during product development and the FDA regulatory review process if approval of the application for the product is the first permitted commercial marketing of a drug or biological product containing the active ingredient. The patent term restoration period is generally one-half the time between the effective date of an IND and the submission date of a new drug application, or NDA, plus the time between the submission date of an NDA and the approval of that application. The Hatch-Waxman Act permits the owner of a patent to apply for a PTE for only one patent applicable to an approved drug, and the maximum period of restoration is five years beyond the expiration of the patent. A PTE cannot extend the remaining term of a patent beyond a total of 14 years from the date of product approval, and a patent can only be extended once, and thus, even if a single patent is applicable to multiple products, it can only be extended based on one product. Similar provisions may be available in Europe and certain other foreign jurisdictions to extend the term of a patent that covers an approved drug. When possible, depending upon the length of clinical trials and other factors involved in the filing of an NDA, we expect to apply for PTEs for patents covering our product candidates and their methods of use, or to work with our licensors, as owners of such patents, to obtain such extensions, if available.
Strategic Partnerships and Licenses
CPRIT
In August 2010, we entered into a grant contract with the Cancer Prevention and Research Institute of Texas (CPRIT), under which we received a $10.3 million commercialization award from the State of Texas through CPRIT. CPRIT was established to expedite innovation and commercialization in the area of cancer research and to enhance access to evidence-based prevention programs and services throughout the State of Texas. The award was a three-year award that was funded annually, and the contract terminated on January 31, 2014, subject to our obligations to make certain payments that survive termination. Under the terms of the award, we will be required to pay to CPRIT a portion of our revenues from sales of certain products by us, or received from our licensees or sublicensees, at a percentage in the low single digits until the aggregate amount of such payments equals a specified multiple of the grant amount, and thereafter at a rate of less than one percent, subject to our right, under certain circumstances, to make a one-time payment in a specified amount to CPRIT to buy out such payment obligations. The 2010 grant contract also contains a provision that provides for repayment to CPRIT some amount not to exceed the full amount of the grant proceeds under certain specified circumstances involving relocation of our principal place of business outside Texas.
On September 1, 2015, we entered into a new grant contract with CPRIT in connection with an approximately $16.8 million award, subject to extension by mutual agreement by us and CPRIT. In October 2015, concurrent with our IPO, we realized this 2015 award in the form of an agreement by CPRIT to purchase approximately $16.8 million of shares of our common stock in a private placement. In contrast to our 2010 award, this 2015 award does not include any royalty obligation upon commercialization of our product candidates, nor are we required to repay the grant proceeds under specified circumstances. Pursuant to this grant contract, we will conduct preclinical and clinical development of certain combination therapy approaches for lung or liver cancer involving MRX34. If, at any time during the term of the grant contract, we determine that the project provided for by the grant

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contract is no longer commercially feasible for us, then we and CPRIT are required to consult in order to reallocate the remaining unspent budget for the project to another oncology project in our product candidate pipeline.
Manufacturing
In November 2016, we discontinued further research and development activities to reduce operating expenses while we evaluate our strategic alternatives with a goal to enhance stockholder value, including the possibility of a merger or sale of the Company. We do not currently own or operate facilities for product manufacturing, storage and distribution or testing and we have previously contracted with third parties to manufacture our compounds for nonclinical and clinical testing purposes.
Manufacturing is subject to extensive regulations that impose various procedural and documentation requirements, which govern recordkeeping, manufacturing processes and controls, personnel, quality control and quality assurance. If we resume research and development activities, our systems and contractors would be required to be in compliance with these regulations.
Drug Substance
Following our suspension of the Phase 1 trial for MRX34 and the FDA’s clinical hold on the IND for MRX34, we discontinued development of MRX34 and our microRNA product pipeline; however, we previously used NITTO DENKO Avecia, or Avecia, to manufacture our MRX34 drug substance.
Drug Product
Our drug product for our microRNA mimics consists of the drug substance formulated in the SMARTICLES liposomal delivery system. The drug product was provided as a concentrated, frozen aqueous solution that was defrosted, thawed and diluted for infusion in the clinic. The exclusive manufacturer of drug product for MRX34 was Polymun; however, this product candidate has been discontinued and we have disposed of all of our finished product that was outstanding.
Research and Development
In November 2016, we discontinued our research and development activities to reduce operating expenses while we evaluate our strategic alternatives with a goal to enhance stockholder value, including the possibility of a merger or sale of the Company. Before we discontinued our research and development activities, we conducted clinical trials and other development activities to support the development of our product candidates. In the years ended December 31, 2016, 2015 and 2014, we incurred $13.9 million, $18.9 million, and $10.5 million, respectively, of research and development expense.
Before we discontinued our research and development activities, our research programs were directed towards the following:
Determining if biomarkers can be used to select cancer patients who are more likely to respond to MRX34 therapy.
Selecting and developing a second miRNA‑based therapeutic candidate.
Developing a next‑generation systemic delivery technology that will improve the tolerability and efficacy profiles of miRNA mimics and expand the cancer indications that can be targeted for therapeutic intervention.
Competition
The biotechnology and pharmaceutical industries are characterized by intense and rapidly changing competition to develop new technologies and proprietary products. If we commence research and development activities, we would face potential competition from many different sources, including larger and better‑funded pharmaceutical and biotechnology companies.
Government Regulation
The FDA and comparable regulatory authorities in state and local jurisdictions and in other countries impose substantial and burdensome requirements upon companies involved in the clinical development, manufacture, marketing and distribution of drugs, such as those we are developing. These agencies and other federal, state and local entities regulate, among other things, the research and development, testing, manufacture, quality control, safety, effectiveness, labeling, storage, record keeping, approval, advertising and promotion, distribution, post-approval monitoring and reporting, sampling and export and import of our product candidates.
In the United States, the FDA regulates drug products under the Federal Food, Drug and Cosmetic Act, or FFDCA, and the FDA’s implementing regulations. Drugs are also subject to other federal, state and local statutes and regulations. If we fail to

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comply with applicable FDA or other requirements at any time during the drug development process, clinical testing, the approval process or after approval, we may become subject to administrative or judicial sanctions. These sanctions could include, among other things, the FDA’s refusal to approve pending applications, license suspension or revocation, withdrawal of an approval, warning letters, product recalls, clinical holds, product seizures, total or partial suspension of production or distribution, injunctions, fines, civil penalties or criminal prosecution. Any FDA enforcement action could have a material adverse effect on us.
FDA approval is required before any new unapproved drug or dosage form, including a new use of a previously approved drug, can be marketed in the United States. The process required by the FDA before a drug may be marketed in the United States generally involves:
completion of extensive nonclinical laboratory tests, nonclinical animal studies and formulation studies many of which must be performed in accordance with the FDA’s current Good Laboratory Practice, or cGLP, regulations;
submission to the FDA of an IND application which must become effective before human clinical trials in the United States may begin;
approval by an independent Institutional Review Board (IRB) at each clinical trial site before each trial may be initiated;
performance of adequate and well-controlled human clinical trials to establish the safety and efficacy of the drug candidate for each proposed indication in accordance with the FDA’s current Good Clinical Practice (cGCP), regulations;
satisfactory completion of an FDA inspection of the manufacturing facility or facilities at which the drug is produced to assess compliance with current Good Manufacturing Practice (cGMP), regulations;
submission to the FDA of an NDA;
satisfactory completion of a potential review by an FDA advisory committee, if applicable; and
FDA review and approval of the NDA prior to any commercial marketing, sale or shipment of the drug.

The nonclinical and clinical testing and approval process requires substantial time, effort and financial resources, and, if we resume our research and development activities, we cannot be certain that any approvals for our product candidates will be granted on a timely basis, if at all. Nonclinical tests include laboratory evaluation of product chemistry, formulation, stability and toxicity, as well as animal studies to assess the characteristics and potential safety and efficacy of the product. The results of nonclinical tests, together with manufacturing information, analytical data and a proposed clinical trial protocol and other information, are submitted as part of an IND to the FDA. Some nonclinical testing may continue even after the IND is submitted. The IND automatically becomes effective 30 days after receipt by the FDA, unless the FDA, within the 30-day time period, raises concerns or questions relating to one or more proposed clinical trials and places the clinical trial on a clinical hold, including concerns that human research subjects will be exposed to unreasonable health risks. In such a case, the IND sponsor and the FDA must resolve any outstanding concerns before the clinical trial can begin. As a result, a submission of an IND may not result in FDA authorization to commence a clinical trial. A separate submission to an existing IND must also be made for each successive clinical trial conducted during product development.
Clinical trials involve the administration of the investigational drug to human subjects under the supervision of qualified investigators. Clinical trials are conducted under protocols detailing, among other things, the objectives of the clinical trial, the parameters to be used in monitoring safety and the effectiveness criteria to be used. Each protocol must be submitted to the FDA as part of the IND. An IRB for each medical center proposing to conduct a clinical trial must also review and approve a plan for any clinical trial before it can begin at that center and the IRB must monitor the clinical trial until it is completed. The FDA, the IRB, or the sponsor may suspend or discontinue a clinical trial at any time on various grounds, including a finding that the subjects are being exposed to an unacceptable health risk. Clinical testing also must satisfy cGCP requirements, including the requirement to obtain effective informed consent from study subjects.
All clinical research performed in the United States in support of an NDA must be authorized in advance by the FDA under the IND regulations and procedures described above. However, a sponsor who wishes to conduct a clinical trial outside the United States may, but need not, obtain FDA authorization to conduct the clinical trial under an IND. If a foreign clinical trial is not conducted under an IND, the sponsor may submit data from the clinical trial to the FDA in support of an NDA so long as the clinical trial is conducted in compliance with an international guideline for the ethical conduct of clinical research known as the Declaration of Helsinki and/or the laws and regulations of the country or countries in which the clinical trial is performed, whichever provides the greater protection to the participants in the clinical trial.
Clinical Trials
For purposes of NDA submission and approval, clinical trials are typically conducted in three or four sequential phases, which may overlap or be combined.

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Phase 1: Clinical trials are initially conducted in a limited population of subjects to test the drug candidate for safety, dose tolerance, absorption, metabolism, distribution and excretion in healthy humans or, on occasion, in patients with severe problems or life-threatening diseases to gain an early indication of its effectiveness.
Phase 2: Clinical trials are generally conducted in a limited patient population to evaluate dosage tolerance and appropriate dosage, identify possible adverse effects and safety risks, and evaluate preliminarily the efficacy of the drug for specific indications in patients with the disease or condition under study.
Phase 3: Clinical trials are typically conducted when Phase 2 clinical trials demonstrate that a dose range of the product candidate is effective and has an acceptable safety profile. Phase 3 clinical trials are commonly referred to as “pivotal” studies, which typically denotes a study that presents the data that the FDA or other relevant regulatory agency will use to determine whether or not to approve a drug. Phase 3 clinical trials are generally undertaken with large numbers of patients, such as groups of several hundred to several thousand, to further evaluate dosage, to provide substantial evidence of clinical efficacy and to further test for safety in an expanded and diverse patient population at multiple, geographically-dispersed clinical trial sites.
Phase 4: In some cases, the FDA may condition approval of an NDA for a product candidate on the sponsor’s agreement to conduct additional clinical trials after NDA approval. In other cases, a sponsor may voluntarily conduct additional clinical trials post-approval to gain more information about the drug. Such post approval trials are typically referred to as Phase 4 clinical trials.

The FDA, the IRB or the clinical trial sponsor may suspend or terminate a clinical trial at any time on various grounds, including a finding that the research subjects are being exposed to an unacceptable health risk. Additionally, some clinical trials are overseen by an independent group of qualified experts organized by the clinical trial sponsor, known as a data safety monitoring board or committee. This group provides authorization for whether or not a trial may move forward at designated check points based on access to certain data from the study.
Concurrent with clinical trials, companies usually complete additional animal trials and must also develop additional information about the chemistry and physical characteristics of the drug and finalize a process for manufacturing the drug in commercial quantities in accordance with cGMP requirements. The manufacturing process must be capable of consistently producing quality batches of the drug candidate and, among other things, the manufacturer must develop methods for testing the identity, strength, quality and purity of the final drug product. Additionally, appropriate packaging must be selected and tested and stability studies must be conducted to demonstrate that the drug candidate does not undergo unacceptable deterioration over its shelf life.
New Drug Applications
The results of nonclinical studies and of the clinical trials, including negative or ambiguous results as well as positive findings, together with other detailed information, including extensive manufacturing information and information on the composition of the drug, are submitted to the FDA in the form of an NDA requesting approval to market the drug for one or more specified indications. The FDA reviews an NDA to determine, among other things, whether a drug is safe and effective for its intended use.
Once an NDA has been accepted for filing, by law the FDA has 180 days to review the application and respond to the applicant. However, the review process is often significantly extended by FDA requests for additional information or clarification. Under the Prescription Drug User Fee Act, the FDA has a goal of responding to NDAs within 10 months of the filing date for standard review, but this timeframe is also often extended. The FDA may refer the application to an advisory committee for review, evaluation and recommendation as to whether the application should be approved. The FDA is not bound by the recommendation of an advisory committee, but it generally follows such recommendations. Before approving an application, the FDA will inspect the facility or the facilities at which the finished drug product, and sometimes the active drug ingredient, is manufactured, and will not approve the drug unless cGMP compliance is satisfactory. The FDA may also inspect the sites at which the clinical trials were conducted to assess their compliance, and will not approve the drug unless compliance with cGCP requirements is satisfactory.
After the FDA evaluates the NDA and conducts its inspections, it may issue an approval letter or a Complete Response Letter. An approval letter authorizes commercial marketing of the drug with specific prescribing information for specific indications. A Complete Response Letter indicates that the review cycle of the application is complete and the application is not ready for approval. A Complete Response Letter may require additional clinical data and/or an additional pivotal Phase 3 clinical trial(s), and/or other significant, expensive and time-consuming requirements related to clinical trials, nonclinical studies or manufacturing. Even if such data are submitted, the FDA may ultimately decide that the NDA does not satisfy the criteria for approval. Data from clinical trials are not always conclusive and the FDA may interpret data differently than we interpret data. The FDA could also approve the NDA with a Risk Evaluation and Mitigation Strategy (REMS) plan to mitigate risks, which could include medication guides, physician communication plans, or elements to assure safe use, such as restricted distribution methods, patient registries

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and other risk minimization tools. The FDA also may conditionally approve the NDA, among other things, requiring changes to proposed labeling, development of adequate controls and specifications, or a commitment to conduct one or more post-market studies or clinical trials. Such post-market testing may include Phase 4 clinical trials and surveillance to further assess and monitor the product’s safety and effectiveness after commercialization. Regulatory approval of oncology products often requires that patients in clinical trials be followed for long periods after approval to determine the overall survival benefit of the drug. The FDA has the authority to prevent or limit further marketing of a drug based on the results of these post-marketing programs.
Drugs may be marketed only for the FDA approved indications and in accordance with the provisions of the approved labeling. Further, if there are any modifications to the drug, including changes in indications, labeling, or manufacturing processes or facilities, the applicant may be required to submit and obtain FDA approval of a new NDA or NDA supplement, which may require us to develop additional data or conduct additional nonclinical studies and clinical trials. Depending on the nature of the change proposed, an NDA supplement must be filed and approved before the change may be implemented. For many proposed post-approval changes to an NDA, the FDA has up to 180 days to review the application. As with new NDAs, the review process is often significantly extended by the FDA requests for additional information or clarification.
The testing and approval processes require substantial time, effort and financial resources, and each may take several years to complete. Nonclinical and clinical data may be interpreted by the FDA in different ways, which could delay, limit or prevent regulatory approval. We may encounter difficulties or unanticipated costs in our efforts to secure necessary governmental approvals, which could delay or preclude us from marketing drugs. The FDA may limit the indications for use or place other conditions on any approvals that could restrict the commercial application of the drugs.
Other Regulatory Requirements
Any drugs manufactured or distributed by us or our collaborators pursuant to FDA approvals would be subject to continuing regulation by the FDA, including recordkeeping requirements and reporting of adverse experiences associated with the drug. Drug manufacturers and their subcontractors are required to register their establishments with the FDA and certain state agencies, and are subject to periodic unannounced inspections by the FDA and certain state agencies for compliance with ongoing regulatory requirements, including cGMPs, which impose certain procedural and documentation requirements upon us and our third party manufacturers. Failure to comply with the statutory and regulatory requirements can subject a manufacturer to possible legal or regulatory action, such as warning letters, suspension of manufacturing, seizure of product, injunctive action or possible civil penalties.
The FDA closely regulates the post-approval marketing and promotion of drugs, including standards and regulations for direct-to-consumer advertising, off-label promotion, industry-sponsored scientific and educational activities and promotional activities involving the internet. A company can make only those claims relating to safety and efficacy that are approved by the FDA. Failure to comply with these requirements can result in adverse publicity, warning letters, corrective advertising and potential civil and criminal penalties. Physicians may prescribe legally available drugs for uses that are not described in the product’s labeling and that differ from those tested by us and approved by the FDA. Such off-label uses are common across medical specialties. Physicians may believe that such off-label uses are the best treatment for many patients in varied circumstances. The FDA does not regulate the behavior of physicians in their choice of treatments. The FDA does, however, impose stringent restrictions on manufacturers’ communications regarding off-label use.
Expedited Review and Accelerated Approval Programs
A sponsor may seek approval of its product candidate under programs designed to accelerate FDA’s review and approval of NDAs. For example, Fast Track Designation may be granted to a drug intended for treatment of a serious or life-threatening disease or condition that has potential to address unmet medical needs for the disease or condition. The key benefits of fast track designation are potential eligibility for priority review, rolling review (submission of portions of an application before the complete marketing application is submitted), and accelerated approval, if relevant criteria are met. Based on results of clinical studies submitted in an NDA, upon the request of an applicant, the FDA may grant the NDA a priority review designation, which sets the target date for FDA action on the application at six months after the FDA accepts the application for filing. Priority review is granted where there is evidence that the proposed product would be a significant improvement in the safety or effectiveness of the treatment, diagnosis, or prevention of a serious condition. If criteria are not met for priority review, the application is subject to the standard FDA review period of 10 months after FDA accepts the application for filing. Priority review designation does not change the scientific/medical standard for approval or the quality of evidence necessary to support approval.
Under the accelerated approval program, the FDA may approve an NDA on the basis of either a surrogate endpoint that is reasonably likely to predict clinical benefit, or on a clinical endpoint that can be measured earlier than irreversible morbidity or mortality, that is reasonably likely to predict an effect on irreversible morbidity or mortality or other clinical benefit, taking into

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account the severity, rarity, or prevalence of the condition and the availability or lack of alternative treatments. Post-marketing studies or completion of ongoing studies after marketing approval are generally required to verify the drug’s clinical benefit in relationship to the surrogate endpoint or ultimate outcome in relationship to the clinical benefit. In addition, the Food and Drug Administration Safety and Innovation Act, or FDASIA, which was enacted and signed into law in 2012, established the new Breakthrough Therapy designation. A sponsor may seek FDA designation of its product candidate as a breakthrough therapy if the drug is intended, alone or in combination with one or more other drugs, to treat a serious or life-threatening disease or condition and preliminary clinical evidence indicates that the drug may demonstrate substantial improvement over existing therapies on one or more clinically significant endpoints, such as substantial treatment effects observed early in clinical development.
Orphan Drug Designation and Exclusivity
Under the Orphan Drug Act, the FDA may grant orphan drug designation to drugs intended to treat a rare disease or condition, which is generally defined as a disease or condition that affects fewer than 200,000 individuals in the United States. Orphan drug designation must be requested before submitting an NDA. In the United States, orphan drug designation entitles a party to financial incentives such as opportunities for grant funding towards clinical trial costs, tax advantages and user-fee waivers. After the FDA grants orphan drug designation, the generic identity of the drug and its potential orphan use are disclosed publicly by the FDA. Orphan drug designation does not convey any advantage in, or shorten the duration of, the regulatory review and approval process. The first NDA applicant to receive FDA approval for a particular active ingredient to treat a particular disease with FDA orphan drug designation is entitled to a seven-year exclusive marketing period in the United States for that product, for that indication. During the seven-year exclusivity period, the FDA may not approve any other applications to market the same drug for the same orphan indication, except in limited circumstances, such as a showing of clinical superiority to the product with orphan exclusivity or if FDA finds that the holder of the orphan drug exclusivity has not shown that it can assure the availability of sufficient quantities of the orphan drug to meet the needs of patients with the disease or condition for which the drug was designated. However, the FDA can still approve other drugs that have a different active ingredient for use in treating the same indication or disease. We have not sought or obtained orphan drug designation for any of our product candidates.
Employees
As of March 3, 2017, we had 9 full‑time employees, of whom two have medical degrees and one has a Ph.D. degree. These employees are primarily engaged in assisting the Company with the evaluation of strategic alternatives following the closure of the Company's Phase 1 trial of MRX34, as well as finance, human resources and general management functions necessary to operate as a public company. We have no collective bargaining agreements with our employees and we have not experienced any work stoppages. We consider our relations with our employees to be good.
About Us
We were incorporated in late 2007 under the laws of Delaware and were maintained as a wholly-owned subsidiary of our former parent company, Asuragen, Inc., until the end of 2009 when we became an independent entity. We completed the initial public offering of our common stock in October 2015. Our common stock is currently listed on The NASDAQ Global Market under the symbol “MIRN.” We are an “emerging growth company” under the Jumpstart Our Business Startups Act of 2012, and therefore we are subject to reduced public company reporting requirements.
Our principal executive offices are located at 1250 S. Capital of Texas Highway, Austin, TX 78746 and our telephone number is (512) 329-2450. Our website address is www.mirnarx.com. The information contained on, or that can be accessed through, our website is not part of this Annual Report on Form 10-K or any other filings we make with the U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission, or the SEC. We have included our website address in this document solely as an inactive textual reference.
Available Information
We make available on or through our website certain reports and amendments to those reports that we file with, or furnish to, the SEC in accordance with the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended, or the Exchange Act. These include our Annual Reports on Form 10-K, our Quarterly Reports on Form 10-Q and our Current Reports on Form 8-K, and amendments to those reports filed or furnished pursuant to Section 13(a) or 15(d) of the Exchange Act. We make this information available on or through our website free of charge as soon as reasonably practicable after we electronically file the information with, or furnish it to, the SEC. Copies of this information may be obtained at the SEC’s Public Reference Room at 100 F Street, NE, Washington, D.C. 20549. Information on the operation of the Public Reference Room may be obtained by calling the SEC at 1-800-SEC-0330. The SEC maintains a website that contains reports, proxy and information statements, and other information regarding our filings, at www.sec.gov. The information on, or that can be accessed through, our website is not incorporated by reference into this document or any other filings we make with the SEC.

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ITEM 1A.  RISK FACTORS
Our business involves a high degree of risk. You should consider carefully the following risks, together with all the other information in this periodic report, including our financial statements and notes thereto and “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations.” If any of the following risks actually materializes, our operating results, financial condition and liquidity could be materially adversely affected. As a result, the trading price of our common stock could decline. Additional risks and uncertainties not presently known to us or that we currently deem immaterial also may impair our business operations.
Risk Factors
Risks Related to Our Evaluation of Strategic Alternatives
Our business to date has been almost entirely dependent on the success of MRX34, and we have decided to discontinue further development of MRX34 and our microRNA product pipeline and devote significant time and resources to identifying and evaluating strategic alternatives, which may not be successful.
To date, we have invested substantially all of our efforts and financial resources in the research and development of MRX34, which was our only product candidate to enter in clinical trials. On September 20, 2016, we voluntarily halted the Phase 1 trial following multiple immune-related SAEs and the IND for MRX34 was placed on full clinical hold. In November 2016, we discontinued research and development activities to reduce operating expenses while we evaluate our strategic alternatives with a goal to enhance stockholder value, including the possibility of a merger or sale of the Company. There can be no assurance that our process to identify and evaluate potential strategic alternatives will result in any definitive offer to consummate a strategic transaction, or if made what the terms thereof will be or that any transaction will be approved or consummated. If any definitive offer to consummate a strategic transaction is received, there can be no assurance that a definitive agreement will be executed or that, if a definitive agreement is executed, the transaction will be consummated. In addition, there can be no assurance that any transaction, involving our company and/or assets, that is consummated would enhance shareholder value. There can be no assurance that this transaction would enhance shareholder value. There also can be no assurance that we will conduct further drug research or development activities in the future.
Any such strategic transaction may require us to incur non-recurring or other charges, may increase our near-and long-term expenditures and may pose significant integration challenges or disrupt our management or business, which could adversely affect our operations and financial results. For example, these transactions may entail numerous operational and financial risks, including:
exposure to unknown liabilities;
incurrence of substantial debt or dilutive issuances of equity securities to pay for acquisitions;
higher-than-expected acquisition and integration costs;
write-downs of assets or goodwill or impairment charges;
increased amortization expenses;
difficulty and cost in combining the operations and personnel of any acquired businesses with our operations and personnel;
impairment of relationships with key suppliers or customers of any acquired businesses due to changes in management and ownership; and
inability to retain key employees of our company or any acquired businesses.

If we do not successfully consummate a strategic transaction, our board of directors may decide to pursue a dissolution and liquidation of our company. In such an event, the amount of cash available for distribution to our stockholders will depend heavily on the timing of such liquidation as well as the amount of cash that will need to be reserved for commitments and contingent liabilities.
There can be no assurance that the process to identify a strategic transaction will result in a successfully consummated transaction. If no transaction is completed, our board of directors may decide to pursue a dissolution and liquidation of our company. In such an event, the amount of cash available for distribution to our stockholders will depend heavily on the timing of such decision and, ultimately, such liquidation, since the amount of cash available for distribution continues to decrease as we fund our

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operations while we evaluate our strategic alternatives. In addition, if our board of directors were to approve and recommend, and our stockholders were to approve, a dissolution and liquidation of our company, we would be required under Delaware corporate law to pay our outstanding obligations, as well as to make reasonable provision for contingent and unknown obligations, prior to making any distributions in liquidation to our stockholders. Our commitments and contingent liabilities may include (i) obligations under our employment and related agreements with certain employees that provide for severance and other payments following a termination of employment occurring for various reasons, including a change in control of our company; (ii) potential litigation against us, and other various claims and legal actions arising in the ordinary course of business; and (iii) non-cancelable facility lease obligations. As a result of this requirement, a portion of our assets may need to be reserved pending the resolution of such obligations. In addition, we may be subject to litigation or other claims related to a dissolution and liquidation of our company. If a dissolution and liquidation were pursued, our board of directors, in consultation with its advisors, would need to evaluate these matters and make a determination about a reasonable amount to reserve. Accordingly, holders of our common stock could lose all or a significant portion of their investment in the event of a liquidation, dissolution or winding up of our company.
We are substantially dependent on our remaining employees to facilitate the consummation of a strategic transaction.
Our ability to successfully complete a strategic transaction depends in large part on our ability to retain certain of our remaining personnel, particularly Paul Lammers, M.D., M.Sc., our president and chief executive officer. Despite our efforts to retain these employees, one or more may terminate their employment with us on short notice. The loss of the services of any of these employees could potentially harm our ability to evaluate and pursue strategic alternatives, as well as fulfill our reporting obligations as a public company.
Risks Related to Our Limited Operating History, Financial Position and Capital Requirements
We have incurred significant losses since inception. We anticipate that we will continue to incur significant losses for the foreseeable future, and if we are unable to achieve and sustain profitability, the market value of our common stock will likely decline.
We are a biopharmaceutical company with a limited operating history. Biopharmaceutical product development is a highly speculative undertaking and involves a substantial degree of risk. We have not generated any product revenues and we do not expect to generate any product revenues for the foreseeable future. We have incurred losses in each year since our founding in 2007 and we expect to continue to incur significant operating losses for the foreseeable future. The amount of future losses is uncertain. None of our product candidates has been approved for sale. We have historically devoted substantially all of our efforts to research and development, including our preclinical and nonclinical development activities. In November 2016, we discontinued research and development activities to reduce operating expenses while we evaluate our strategic alternatives with a goal to enhance stockholder value, including the possibility of a merger or sale of the Company. To date, we have derived all of our funding from our collaboration with our former parent company, Asuragen, Inc., or Asuragen, private and public placements of our capital stock and government grants for research and development. Our net loss for the year ended December 31, 2016 was $26.3 million. Since inception, we have incurred net losses leading to an accumulated deficit of approximately $102.8 million as of December 31, 2016.
We expect to continue to incur significant expenses and operating losses for the foreseeable future as we evaluate strategic alternatives with a goal to enhance stockholder value, including the possibility of a merger or sale of the Company. Our prior losses, combined with expected future losses, have had and will continue to have an adverse effect on our stockholders’ equity and working capital. If we are unable to achieve and sustain profitability, the market value of our common stock will likely decline. Because of the numerous risks and uncertainties associated with developing biopharmaceutical products, we are unable to predict the extent of any future losses or whether we will become profitable.
Our short operating history may make it difficult to evaluate the success of our business to date and to assess our future viability.
We are a biopharmaceutical company that was founded in 2007 and did not exist as a standalone company until 2009. Our operations to date have been limited to organizing and staffing our company, business planning, raising capital, acquiring and developing our technology, identifying and evaluating potential product candidates and delivery technologies, undertaking nonclinical studies, filing an IND application with the FDA, and conducting a Phase 1 clinical trial of MRX34. None of our product candidates are in clinical development and, in November 2016, we discontinued our research and development activities relating to our product candidates that were in preclinical development. We have not demonstrated our ability to initiate clinical trials for product candidates other than MRX34, or successfully complete any clinical trials, including large‑scale, pivotal clinical trials, obtain marketing approvals, manufacture a commercial scale medicine, or arrange for a third party to do so on our behalf, or conduct sales and marketing activities necessary for successful commercialization. Typically, it takes many years to develop one new product candidate from the time it is discovered to when it is available for treating patients. Consequently, any predictions

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about our future success or viability, or any evaluation of our business or prospects, may not be as accurate as they could be if we had a longer operating history. In addition, as a new business, we may encounter unforeseen expenses, difficulties, complications, delays and other known and unknown challenges.
Risks Related to Product Development and Commercialization
We face potential product liability, and, if successful claims are brought against us, we may incur substantial liability and costs. If the use or misuse of our product candidates harms patients, or is perceived to harm patients even when such harm is unrelated to our product candidates, we could be subject to costly and damaging product liability claims. If we are unable to obtain adequate insurance or are required to pay for liabilities resulting from a claim excluded from, or beyond the limits of, our insurance coverage, a material liability claim could adversely affect our financial condition.
The use or misuse of our product candidates in clinical trials exposes us to the risk of product liability claims. Product liability claims might be brought against us by consumers, healthcare providers, pharmaceutical companies or others selling or otherwise coming into contact with our products. There is a risk that our product candidates may induce adverse events. If we cannot successfully defend against product liability claims, we could incur substantial liability and costs. Certain oligonucleotide therapeutics and liposomal drug delivery products have shown injection site reactions, infusion reactions, and pro-inflammatory effects, and may also lead to organ dysfunction, including impairment of kidney or liver function. There is a risk that our product candidates may induce similar adverse events. Patients with the diseases targeted by our product candidates are often already in severe and advanced stages of disease and have both known and unknown significant pre‑existing and potentially life‑threatening health risks. During the course of treatment, patients may suffer adverse events, including death, for reasons that may be related to our product candidates. Such events could subject us to costly litigation, require us to pay substantial amounts of money to injured patients, delay, negatively impact or end our opportunity to receive or maintain regulatory approval to market our products, or require us to suspend or abandon our commercialization efforts. Even in a circumstance in which we do not believe that an adverse event is related to our products, the investigation into the circumstance may be time-consuming or inconclusive. As a result of these factors, a product liability claim, even if successfully defended, could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition or results of operations.
We have product liability insurance that we feel is appropriate for our stage of development, which covers clinical trials in the United States, for up to $1 million per occurrence, up to an aggregate limit of $5 million; however, our insurance may be insufficient to reimburse us for any expenses or losses we may suffer. Our product liability insurance policy for clinical trials completed in the United States expires on December 31, 2017. In addition, we have product liability insurance, which covers clinical trials in the Republic of Korea, for up to KRW 625,000,000 per occurrence, or approximately $500,000, up to an aggregate limit of KRW 2,500,000,000 or approximately $2,000,000. Our product liability insurance policy for clinical trials completed in the Republic of Korea includes one additional year of coverage expiring on October 11, 2017. We do not know whether we will be able to continue to obtain product liability coverage and obtain expanded coverage if we require it, in sufficient amounts to protect us against losses due to liability, on acceptable terms, or at all. We may not have sufficient resources to pay for any liabilities resulting from a claim excluded from, or beyond the limits of, our insurance coverage. Where we have provided indemnities in favor of third parties under our agreements with them, there is also a risk that these third parties could incur liability and bring a claim under such indemnities. An individual may bring a product liability claim against us alleging that one of our product candidates or products causes, or is claimed to have caused, an injury or is found to be unsuitable for consumer use. Any such product liability claims may include allegations of defects in manufacturing, defects in design, a failure to warn of dangers inherent in the product, negligence, strict liability, and a breach of warranties. Claims could also be asserted under state consumer protection acts. Any product liability claim brought against us, with or without merit, could result in:
initiation of investigations by regulators;
substantial costs of litigation, including monetary awards to patients or other claimants;
liabilities that substantially exceed our product liability insurance, which we would then be required to pay ourselves;
an increase in our product liability insurance rates or the inability to maintain insurance coverage in the future on acceptable terms, if at all;
the diversion of management’s attention from our business; and
damage to our reputation and the reputation of our products and our technology.

Product liability claims may subject us to the foregoing and other risks, which could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects.

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Risks Related to Our Reliance on Third Parties
If we attempt to form collaborations in the future with respect to our product candidates, we may not be able to do so.
We may attempt to form strategic alliances, create joint ventures or collaborations or enter into licensing arrangements with third parties with respect to our programs that we believe will complement or augment our existing business. We may face significant competition in seeking appropriate strategic partners, and the negotiation process to secure appropriate terms is time-consuming and complex. We may not be successful in our efforts to establish such a strategic partnership for any product candidates and programs on terms that are acceptable to us, or at all. This may be because our product candidates and programs may be deemed to be at too early of a stage of development for collaborative effort, our research and development pipeline may be viewed as insufficient, the competitive or intellectual property landscape may be viewed as too intense or risky, and/or third parties may not view our product candidates and programs as having sufficient potential for commercialization, including the likelihood of an adequate safety and efficacy profile.
If we entered into a collaboration, we may be unable to realize the potential benefits of any collaboration.
If we enter into a collaboration with respect to the development and/or commercialization of one or more product candidates, there is no guarantee that the collaboration would be successful. Collaborations may pose a number of risks, including:
collaborators often have significant discretion in determining the efforts and resources that they will apply to the collaboration, and may not commit sufficient resources to the development, marketing or commercialization of the product or products that are subject to the collaboration;
collaborators may not perform their obligations as expected;
any such collaboration may require us to relinquish potentially valuable rights to our current product candidates, potential products or proprietary technologies or grant licenses on terms that are not favorable to us;
collaborators may cease to devote resources to the development or commercialization of our product candidates if the collaborators view our product candidates as competitive with their own products or product candidates;
disagreements with collaborators, including disagreements over proprietary rights, contract interpretation or the course of development, might cause delays or termination of the development or commercialization of product candidates, and might result in legal proceedings, which would be time-consuming, distracting and expensive;
collaborators may be impacted by changes in their strategic focus or available funding, or business combinations involving them, which could cause them to divert resources away from the collaboration;
collaborators may infringe the intellectual property rights of third parties, which may expose us to litigation and potential liability;
the collaborations may not result in us achieving revenues to justify such transactions; and
collaborations may be terminated and, if terminated, may result in a need for us to raise additional capital to resume further development or commercialization of the applicable product candidate.

As a result, a collaboration may not result in the successful development or commercialization of our product candidates.
Reliance on government funding for our programs may add uncertainty to our research and commercialization efforts with respect to those programs that are tied to such funding and may impose requirements that limit our ability to take certain actions, increase the costs of commercialization and production of product candidates developed under those programs and subject us to potential financial penalties, which could materially and adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operations.
During the course of our development of our product candidates, we have been funded in significant part through federal and state grants, including but not limited to the substantial funding we have received from the Texas Emerging Technology Fund and the Cancer Prevention and Research Institute of Texas, or CPRIT. In addition to the funding we have received to date, we have in the past applied for federal and state grants to receive additional funding. Contracts and grants funded by the U.S. government, state governments and their related agencies, including our contracts with the State of Texas pertaining to funds we have already received, include provisions that reflect the government’s substantial rights and remedies, many of which are not typically found in commercial contracts, including powers of the government to:
potentially require repayment of all or a portion of the grant proceeds, in certain cases with interest, in the event we violate certain covenants pertaining to various matters that include any potential relocation outside of the State of Texas, failure to achieve certain milestones or to comply with terms relating to use of grant proceeds, or failure to comply with certain laws;
terminate agreements, in whole or in part, for any reason or no reason;

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reduce or modify the government’s obligations under such agreements without the consent of the other party;
claim rights, including intellectual property rights, in products and data developed under such agreements;
audit contract-related costs and fees, including allocated indirect costs;
suspend the contractor or grantee from receiving new contracts pending resolution of alleged violations of procurement laws or regulations;
impose U.S. manufacturing requirements for products that embody inventions conceived or first reduced to practice under such agreements;
impose qualifications for the engagement of manufacturers, suppliers and other contractors as well as other criteria for reimbursements;
suspend or debar the contractor or grantee from doing future business with the government;
control and potentially prohibit the export of products;
pursue criminal or civil remedies under the False Claims Act, False Statements Act and similar remedy provisions specific to government agreements; and
limit the government’s financial liability to amounts appropriated by the U.S. Congress on a fiscal‑year basis, thereby leaving some uncertainty about the future availability of funding for a program even after it has been funded for an initial period.

In addition to those powers set forth above, the government funding we may receive could also impose requirements to make payments based upon sales of our products in the future, if any. For example, under the terms of our 2010 award from CPRIT, we are required to pay CPRIT a portion of our revenues from sales of certain products by us, or received from our licensees or sublicensees, at a percentage in the low single digits until the aggregate amount of such payments equals a specified multiple of the grant amount, and thereafter at a rate of less than one percent, subject to our right, under certain circumstances, to make a one‑time payment in a specified amount to CPRIT to buy out such payment obligations. In addition, the 2010 grant contract also contains a provision that provides for repayment to CPRIT some amount not to exceed the full amount of the grant proceeds under certain specified circumstances involving relocation of our principal place of business outside Texas. See also “Business-Strategic Partnerships and Licenses” for a description of this CPRIT agreement, which includes a description of our obligations to make royalty payments.
We may not have the right to prohibit the U.S. government from using certain technologies developed by us, and we may not be able to prohibit third-party companies, including our competitors, from using those technologies in providing products and services to the U.S. government. The U.S. government generally takes the position that it has the right to royalty-free use of technologies that are developed under U.S. government contracts. These and other provisions of government grants may also apply to intellectual property we license now or in the future.
In addition, government contracts and grants normally contain additional requirements that may increase our costs of doing business, reduce our profits, and expose us to liability for failure to comply with these terms and conditions. These requirements include, for example:
specialized accounting systems unique to government contracts and grants;
mandatory financial audits and potential liability for price adjustments or recoupment of government funds after such funds have been spent;
public disclosures of certain contract and grant information, which may enable competitors to gain insights into our research program; and
mandatory socioeconomic compliance requirements, including labor standards, non‑discrimination and affirmative action programs and environmental compliance requirements.

If we fail to maintain compliance with any such requirements that may apply to us now or in the future, we may be subject to potential liability and to termination of our contracts.
Risks Related to Administrative Operations
Recent changes in our executive leadership and any similar changes in the future may serve as a significant distraction for our management and employees.
Since the beginning of 2016, there have been three changes to our executive leadership team. In May 2016, we transitioned our Chief Medical Officer from Dr. Sinil Kim to Dr. Vincent O’Neill and, in June 2016, we mutually agreed with Dr. Miguel Barbosa that Dr. Barbosa would resign as our Chief Scientific Officer. Effective in December 2016, we terminated the employment of Jon Irvin, our Vice President of Finance, in connection with our restructuring as part of a plan to reduce operating costs. Such changes, or any other future changes in our executive leadership, may disrupt our operations as we adjust to the reallocation of

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responsibilities and assimilate new leadership and, potentially, differing perspectives on our strategic direction. If the transition in executive leadership is not smooth, the resulting disruption could negatively affect our ability to execute our strategic plan.
Our internal computer systems, or those of our CROs or other contractors or consultants, may fail or suffer security breaches.
Despite the implementation of security measures, our internal computer systems and those of our CROs (if any) and other contractors and consultants are vulnerable to damage from computer viruses, unauthorized access, natural disasters, terrorism, war and telecommunication and electrical failures. While we have not experienced any such system failure, accident or security breach to date, if such an event were to occur and cause interruptions in our operations, it could result in a material disruption of our programs. For example, the loss of clinical trial data from completed or ongoing clinical trials for any of our product candidates could result in delays in our regulatory approval efforts and significantly increase our costs to recover or reproduce the data. To the extent that any disruption or security breach results in a loss of or damage to our data or applications, or inappropriate disclosure of confidential or proprietary information, including the confidential medical information of clinical trial participants, we could incur liability.
Our employees, independent contractors, principal investigators, CROs, consultants and vendors may engage in misconduct or other improper activities, including noncompliance with regulatory standards and requirements.
We are exposed to the risk that our employees, independent contractors, principal investigators, CROs, consultants and vendors, if any, may engage in fraudulent or other illegal activity. Misconduct by these parties could include intentional, reckless and/or negligent conduct or disclosure of unauthorized activities to us that violates: (i) FDA regulations, including those laws requiring the reporting of true, complete and accurate information to the FDA; (ii) manufacturing standards; (iii) federal and state healthcare fraud and abuse laws and regulations; or (iv) laws that require the true, complete and accurate information or data. Specifically, sales, marketing and business arrangements in the healthcare industry are subject to extensive laws and regulations intended to prevent fraud, kickbacks, self-dealing and other abusive practices. These laws and regulations may restrict or prohibit a wide range of pricing, discounting, marketing and promotion, sales commission, customer incentive programs and other business arrangements. Activities subject to these laws also involve the improper use of information obtained in the course of clinical trials, which could result in regulatory sanctions and serious harm to our reputation. It is not always possible to identify and deter misconduct by our employees and other third parties, and the precautions we take to detect and prevent this activity may not be effective in controlling unknown or unmanaged risks or losses or in protecting us from governmental investigations or other actions or lawsuits stemming from a failure to be in compliance with such laws or regulations. If any such actions are instituted against us, and we are not successful in defending ourselves or asserting our rights, those actions could have a significant impact on our business, including the imposition of civil, criminal and administrative penalties, damages, monetary fines, possible exclusion from participation in Medicare, Medicaid and other federal healthcare programs, contractual damages, reputational harm, diminished profits and future earnings, and curtailment of our operations, any of which could adversely affect our ability to operate our business and our results of operations.
Requirements associated with being a public company have increased and will continue to increase our costs significantly, as well as divert significant company resources and management attention.
Prior to our initial public offering in 2015, we were not subject to the reporting requirements of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended, or the Exchange Act, or the other rules and regulations of the Securities and Exchange Commission, or SEC, or any securities exchange relating to public companies. We are working with our legal, independent accounting and financial advisors to identify those areas in which changes should be made to our financial and management control systems to manage our growth and our obligations as a public company. These areas include corporate governance, corporate control, disclosure controls and procedures and financial reporting and accounting systems. We have made, and will continue to make, changes in these and other areas. However, the expenses associated with operating as a public company are material, particularly after we cease to be an “emerging growth company.” Compliance with the various reporting and other requirements applicable to public companies also requires considerable time and attention of management. In addition, the changes we have made, and continue to make, may not be sufficient to allow us to satisfy our obligations as a public company on a timely basis, or at all.
However, for as long as we remain an “emerging growth company” as defined in the Jumpstart our Business Startups Act, or the JOBS Act, we may take advantage of certain exemptions from various reporting requirements that are applicable to other public companies that are not “emerging growth companies,” including not being required to comply with the auditor attestation requirements of Section 404 of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act, reduced disclosure obligations regarding executive compensation in our periodic reports and proxy statements and exemptions from the requirements of holding a nonbinding advisory vote on executive compensation and stockholder approval of any golden parachute payments not previously approved. Because the JOBS Act has only recently been enacted, it is not yet clear whether investors will accept the more limited disclosure requirements that we may be entitled to follow while we are an “emerging growth company.” If they do not, we may elect to comply with

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disclosure requirements as if we were not an “emerging growth company,” in which case we would incur the greater expenses associated with such disclosure requirements.
We will remain an “emerging growth company” for up to five years after the completion of our initial public offering, although if the market value of our common stock that is held by non-affiliates exceeds $700 million as of any June 30 before that time or if we have total annual gross revenues of $1 billion or more during any fiscal year before that time, we would cease to be an “emerging growth company” as of the end of that fiscal year, or if we issue more than $1 billion in non‑convertible debt in a three-year period, we would cease to be an “emerging growth company” immediately.
In addition, being a public company could make it more difficult or costly for us to obtain certain types of insurance, including directors’ and officers’ liability insurance, and we may be forced to accept reduced policy limits and coverage or incur substantially higher costs to obtain the same or similar coverage. The impact of these events could also make it more difficult for us to attract and retain qualified persons to serve on our board of directors, our board committees or as executive officers.
If we are not able to implement the requirements of Section 404 of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002 in a timely manner or with adequate compliance, we may be subject to sanctions by regulatory authorities.
Section 404 of the Sarbanes‑Oxley Act of 2002 requires that we evaluate and determine the effectiveness of our internal controls over financial reporting and, beginning with our annual report for fiscal year 2016, provide a management report on the internal control over financial reporting. If we have a material weakness in our internal control over financial reporting, we may not detect errors on a timely basis and our financial statements may be materially misstated. We will be evaluating our internal controls systems to allow management to report on, and eventually allow our independent auditors to attest to, our internal controls. We will be performing the system and process evaluation and testing (and any necessary remediation) required to comply with the management certification and eventual auditor attestation requirements of Section 404 of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002. The aforementioned auditor attestation requirements will not apply to us until we are no longer considered an “emerging growth company.”
We cannot be certain as to the timing of completion of our evaluation, testing and remediation actions or the impact of the same on our operations. If we are not able to implement the requirements of Section 404 in a timely manner or with adequate compliance, we may be subject to sanctions or investigation by regulatory authorities, such as the SEC or The NASDAQ Stock Market LLC, or NASDAQ. Any such action could adversely affect our financial results or investors’ confidence in us and could cause our stock price to fall. Moreover, if we are not able to comply with the requirements of Section 404 in a timely manner, or if we or our independent registered public accounting firm identifies deficiencies in our internal controls that are deemed to be material weaknesses, we could be subject to sanctions or investigations by the SEC, NASDAQ or other regulatory authorities, which would entail expenditure of additional financial and management resources and could materially adversely affect our stock price. Deficient internal controls could also cause us to fail to meet our reporting obligations or cause investors to lose confidence in our reported financial information, which could have a negative effect on our stock price.
Our ability to utilize our net operating loss carryforwards and certain other tax attributes may be limited.
We have incurred substantial losses during our history and were not profitable in 2016 and may never achieve profitability. To the extent that we continue to generate taxable losses, unused losses will carry forward to offset future taxable income, if any, until such unused losses expire. We may be unable to use these losses to offset income before such unused losses expire. Under Sections 382 and 383 of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986, as amended, or the Code, if a corporation undergoes an “ownership change,” generally defined as a greater than 50 percentage point change (by value) in its equity ownership over a three-year period, the corporation’s ability to use its pre-change net operating loss, or NOL, carryforwards and other pre-change tax attributes to offset its post-change income or taxes may be further limited. We believe that we have experienced at least one ownership change in the past. We may also experience additional ownership changes as a result of subsequent shifts in our stock ownership. Accordingly, our ability to use our pre-change NOL carryforwards to offset U.S. federal taxable income may be subject to limitations, which could potentially result in increased future tax liability to us. For these reasons, we may not be able to utilize any or a material portion of our NOL carryforwards and other tax attributes.
We, or the third parties upon whom we depend, may be adversely affected by natural disasters and our business continuity and disaster recovery plans may not adequately protect us from a serious disaster.
Natural disasters could severely disrupt our operations, and have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations. If a natural disaster, power outage or other event occurred that prevented us from using all or a significant portion of our headquarters, that damaged critical infrastructure, such as our enterprise financial systems or manufacturing resource planning and enterprise quality systems, or that otherwise disrupted operations, it may be difficult or, in

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certain cases, impossible for us to continue our business for a substantial period of time. The disaster recovery and business continuity plans we have in place currently are limited and are unlikely to prove adequate in the event of a serious disaster or similar event. We may incur substantial expenses as a result of the limited nature of our disaster recovery and business continuity plans, which could have a material adverse effect on our business.
Furthermore, if we resume our research and development activities and integral parties in our supply chain are geographically concentrated and operating from single sites, this would increasing their vulnerability to natural disasters or other sudden, unforeseen and severe adverse events. If such an event were to affect such parties in our supply chain, it could have a material adverse effect on our business.
Risks Related to Intellectual Property
If we are sued for infringing the patent rights or misappropriating the trade secrets of third parties, such litigation could be costly and time consuming.
It is also possible that we have failed to identify relevant third-party patents or applications. For example, applications filed before November 29, 2000 and certain applications filed after that date that will not be filed outside the United States remain confidential until patents issue. Moreover, it is difficult for industry participants, including us, to identify all third-party patent rights that may be relevant to our product candidates and technologies because patent searching is imperfect due to differences in terminology among patents, incomplete databases and the difficulty in assessing the meaning of patent claims. We may fail to identify relevant patents or patent applications or may identify pending patent applications of potential interest but incorrectly predict the likelihood that such patent applications may issue with claims of relevance to our technology. In addition, we may be unaware of one or more issued patents that would be infringed by the manufacture, sale or use of a current or future product candidate, or we may incorrectly conclude that a third-party patent is invalid, unenforceable or not infringed by our activities. Additionally, pending patent applications that have been published can, subject to certain limitations, be later amended in a manner that could cover our technologies, our products or the use of our products.
There is a substantial amount of intellectual property litigation in the biotechnology and pharmaceutical industries, and we may become party to, or threatened with, litigation or other adversarial proceedings regarding patent rights with respect to our technology or products candidates, including interferences, oppositions and inter partes review proceedings before the USPTO and corresponding foreign patent offices. We also monitor patent prosecution activities and pending applications of competitors and potential competitors in our field in order to identify third party patent rights that could pose a potential threat to our freedom to operate in the market with respect to our product candidates, once commercialized. We are currently pursuing and may in the future pursue available administrative proceedings in the U.S. or foreign patent offices to challenge third party patent rights that could adversely impact our ability to commercialize one or more of our product candidates. As the biotechnology and pharmaceutical industries expand and more patents are issued, the risk increases that our current or future product candidates may be subject to claims of infringement of the patent rights of third parties, who may assert infringement claims against us based on existing or future patent rights. Third parties may assert that we are employing their proprietary technology without authorization. There may be third-party patents or patent applications with claims to materials, formulations, methods of manufacture or methods for treatment related to the use or manufacture of our product candidates and third parties could allege that our technology infringes such claims. Further, because patent applications can take many years to issue, third parties may have currently pending patent applications which may later result in issued patents that our product candidates may infringe, or which such third parties claim are infringed by the use of our technologies. The outcome of patent litigation is subject to uncertainties that cannot be adequately quantified in advance. The pharmaceutical and biotechnology industries have produced a significant number of patents, and it may not always be clear to industry participants, including us, which patents cover various types of products or methods of use. The coverage of patents is subject to interpretation by the courts, and the interpretation is not always uniform. If we are sued for patent infringement, we would need to demonstrate that our product candidates, products or methods either do not infringe the patent claims of the relevant patent or that the patent claims are invalid, and we may not be able to do this. Proving that a patent is invalid is difficult. For example, in the United States, proving invalidity requires a showing of clear and convincing evidence to overcome the presumption of validity enjoyed by issued patents. Even if we are successful in these proceedings, we may incur substantial costs and the time and attention of our management and scientific personnel could be diverted in pursuing these proceedings, which could have a material adverse effect on us. In addition, we may not have sufficient resources to bring these actions to a successful conclusion.
If we are found to infringe a third party’s patent rights, we could be forced, including by court order, to cease developing, manufacturing or commercializing the infringing product candidate or product. Alternatively, we may be required to obtain a license from such third party in order to use the infringing technology and continue developing, manufacturing or marketing the infringing product candidate. However, we may not be able to obtain any required license on commercially reasonable terms or at all. Even if we were able to obtain a license, it could be non-exclusive, thereby giving our competitors access to the same

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technologies licensed to us. In addition, we could be found liable for monetary damages, including treble damages and attorneys’ fees if we are found to have willfully infringed a patent. A finding of infringement could prevent us from commercializing our product candidates or force us to cease some of our business operations, which could materially harm our business. Claims that we have misappropriated the confidential information or trade secrets of third parties could have a similar negative impact on our business.
Parties making claims against us for infringement of their patent rights may obtain injunctive or other equitable relief, which could effectively block our ability to further develop and commercialize one or more of our product candidates. Defense of these claims, regardless of their merit, would involve substantial litigation expense and would be a substantial diversion of employee resources from our business. In the event of a successful claim of infringement against us, we could be required to redesign our infringing products or obtain a license from such third party to continue developing and commercializing our products and technology. However, we may not be able to obtain any required license on commercially reasonable terms, or at all. Even if we are able to obtain a license, it may be non-exclusive, thereby giving our competitors access to the same technologies licensed to us. It may be impossible to redesign our products and technology, or it may require substantial time and monetary expenditure, which could force us to cease commercialization of one or more of our product candidates or some of our business operations, which could materially harm our business. In addition, in any such proceeding, we may be required to pay substantial damages, including treble damages and attorneys’ fees in the event we are found liable for willful infringement.
If we breach any of the agreements under which we license patent rights to use, develop and commercialize our product candidates or our technologies from third parties or, in certain cases, we fail to meet certain development deadlines, we could lose license rights that are important to our business.
We are a party to a number of license agreements under which we are granted rights to intellectual property that are important to our business and we expect that we may need to enter into additional license agreements in the future, if we resume our research and development activities which have been discontinued. These include our exclusive cross-license agreement with Asuragen, our exclusive licenses from Yale University, or Yale, Marina, the University of Zurich, and Rosetta Genomics Ltd., or Rosetta Genomics.
Our existing license agreements, except our cross-license agreement with Asuragen, generally impose, and we expect that future license agreements (if any) would impose on us, various development, regulatory and/or commercial diligence obligations, and financial obligations, such as payment of milestones and/or royalties. If we fail to comply with our obligations under these agreements, or we are subject to a bankruptcy, the licensor may have the right to terminate the license, in which event we may not be able to market products covered by the license. Our business could suffer, for example, if any current or future licenses terminate, if the licensors fail to abide by the terms of the license, if the licensed patents or other rights are found to be invalid or unenforceable, or if we are unable to enter into necessary licenses on acceptable terms. See “Business-Strategic Partnerships and Licenses” for a description of our license agreements, which sets forth the material terms and obligations, including a description of the termination provisions, under our agreements with Asuragen, Yale, Marina, the University of Zurich and Rosetta Genomics.
As we have done previously, if we commence research and development of product candidates, we may need to obtain licenses from third parties to advance research or allow commercialization of product candidates, and we cannot provide any assurances that third-party patents do not exist that might be enforced against our current product candidates or future products in the absence of such a license. We may fail to obtain any of these licenses on commercially reasonable terms, if at all. Even if we are able to obtain a license, it may be non-exclusive, thereby giving our competitors access to the same technologies licensed to us. In that event, we may be required to expend significant time and resources to develop or license replacement technology, if we resume our research and development activities. If we are unable to do so, we may be unable to develop or commercialize the affected product candidates, which could materially harm our business and the third parties owning such intellectual property rights could seek either an injunction prohibiting our sales, or, with respect to our sales, an obligation on our part to pay royalties and/or other forms of compensation.
Licensing of intellectual property is of critical importance to our business and involves complex legal, business and scientific issues. Disputes may arise between us and our licensors regarding intellectual property subject to a license agreement, including:
the scope of rights granted under the license agreement and other interpretation‑related issues;
whether and the extent to which our technology and processes infringe on intellectual property of the licensor that is not subject to the licensing agreement;
our right to sublicense patent and other rights to third parties under collaborative development relationships;

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our diligence obligations with respect to the use of the licensed technology in relation to our development and commercialization of our product candidates, and what activities satisfy those diligence obligations; and
the ownership of inventions and know‑how resulting from the joint creation or use of intellectual property by our licensors and us and our partners.

If disputes over intellectual property that we have licensed arise, we would expect to exercise all rights and remedies available to us, including seeking to cure any breach by us, and otherwise seek to preserve our rights under the patents licensed to us. However, we may not be able to do so in a timely manner, at an acceptable cost or at all. Generally, the loss of any one of our current licenses, or any other license we may acquire in the future, could prevent or impair our ability to successfully develop and commercialize the affected product candidates and thus materially harm our business, prospects, financial condition and results of operations.
We may be subject to claims challenging the inventorship or ownership of our patents and other intellectual property.
We were previously involved in discussions with Yale regarding the inventorship and ownership of certain patents and patent applications licensed to us by Asuragen. An independent third party expert was engaged to determine the inventorship and the ownership of patents and patent applications potentially subject to Yale and Asuragen co-ownership. This determination confirmed Asuragen’s sole ownership of the patents and patent applications where co-ownership had been under consideration and resulted in a determination that Yale should be removed as a co-owner of one of the pending patent applications, an action we are currently undertaking.
Although we seek to protect our ownership of our patents and other intellectual property by ensuring that our agreements with our employees and certain collaborators and other third parties with whom we do business include provisions requiring, for instance, such parties to assign rights in inventions to us, we may be subject to claims that former or current employees, collaborators or other third parties have an ownership interest in our patents, in-licensed patents or other intellectual property. In some situations, our confidentiality agreements may conflict with, or be subject to, the rights of third parties with whom our employees, consultants or advisors have previous employment or consulting relationships, and further, many of our consultants are currently retained by other biotechnology or pharmaceutical companies, including our competitors or potential competitors, and may be subject to conflicting obligations to these third parties. To the extent that our employees, consultants or contractors use any intellectual property owned by third parties in their work for us, disputes may arise as to the ownership of rights in any related or resulting know-how and inventions, arising, for example, from such conflicting obligations of consultants, employees or others who are involved in developing our product candidates. Litigation may be necessary to defend against these and other claims challenging inventorship or ownership. If we fail in defending any such claims, in addition to paying monetary damages, we may lose valuable intellectual property rights, such as exclusive ownership of, or right to use, valuable intellectual property. Such an outcome could have a material adverse effect on our business. Even if we are successful in defending against such claims, litigation could result in substantial costs and be a distraction to management and other employees.
Obtaining and maintaining patent protection depends on compliance with various procedural, document submission, fee payment and other requirements imposed by governmental patent agencies, and our patent protection could be reduced or eliminated for non-compliance with these requirements.
The USPTO and various foreign governmental patent agencies require compliance with a number of procedural, documentary, fee payment and other similar provisions during the patent prosecution process. Periodic maintenance fees, renewal fees, annuity fees and various other governmental fees on patents and/or patent applications will be due to be paid to the USPTO and various patent agencies outside of the United States in several stages over the lifetime of the patents and/or applications. We have systems in place to remind us to pay these fees, and we employ reputable law firms and other professionals and rely on such third parties to effect payment of these fees with respect to the USPTO and non-U.S. patent agencies with respect to the patents and patent applications we own, and we rely upon our licensors to effect payment of these fees with respect to the patents and patent applications that we in-license. Even if we do not control prosecution and maintenance of our in-licensed patents, we may be responsible for reimbursing our licensors for some or all of the costs associated with such activities. If we fail to make timely payment to our licensors for such fees, our licensors may have the right to terminate the affected license, in which event we would not be able to market products covered by the license. We also employ reputable law firms and other professionals to help us comply with the various documentary and other procedural requirements with respect to the patents and patent applications that we own. In some cases, an inadvertent lapse can be cured by payment of a late fee or by other means in accordance with the applicable rules. However, there are situations in which noncompliance can result in abandonment or lapse of the patent or patent application, resulting in partial or complete loss of patent rights in the relevant jurisdiction. In such an event, our competitors might be able to enter the market and this circumstance would have a material adverse effect on our business.

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We may be subject to claims that our employees or consultants or independent contractors have wrongfully used or disclosed confidential information or trade secrets of third parties or that our employees or consultants have wrongfully used or disclosed alleged trade secrets of former or other employers.
Many of our employees, independent contractors and consultants, including our senior management, have been previously employed or retained by other biotechnology or pharmaceutical companies, including our competitors or potential competitors. Although we try to ensure that our employees, consultants and independent contractors do not use the proprietary information or know-how of third parties in their work for us, and do not perform work for us that is in conflict with their obligations to another employer or any other entity, we may be subject to claims that we or our employees, consultants or independent contractors have inadvertently or otherwise improperly used or disclosed confidential information, including trade secrets or other proprietary information, of a former employer or other third parties. We may also be subject to claims that an employee, advisor, consultant, or independent contractor performed work for us that conflicts with that person’s obligations to a third party, such as an employer, and thus, that the third party has an ownership interest in the intellectual property arising out of work performed for us. We are not aware of any threatened or pending claims related to these matters, but in the future litigation may be necessary to defend against such claims. If we fail in defending any such claims, in addition to paying monetary damages, we may lose valuable personnel or intellectual property rights, such as exclusive ownership of, or right to use, valuable intellectual property. Such an outcome could have a material adverse effect on our business. Even if we are successful in defending against such claims, litigation could result in substantial costs and be a distraction to management.
Intellectual property disputes could cause us to spend substantial resources and distract our personnel from their normal responsibilities.
Even if resolved in our favor, litigation or other legal proceedings relating to intellectual property claims may cause us to incur significant expenses, and could distract our technical and/or management personnel from their normal responsibilities. In addition, there could be public announcements of the results of hearings, motions or other interim proceedings or developments and if securities analysts or investors perceive these results to be negative, it could have a substantial adverse effect on the market price of our common stock. Such litigation or proceedings could substantially increase our operating losses and reduce the resources available for development activities or any future sales, marketing or distribution activities. We may not have sufficient financial or other resources to adequately conduct such litigation or proceedings. Some of our competitors may be able to sustain the costs of such litigation or proceedings more effectively than we can because of their greater financial resources. Uncertainties resulting from the initiation and continuation of patent litigation or other proceedings could have a material adverse effect on our ability to compete in the marketplace.
Risks Related to Our Common Stock
Our stock price is volatile and our stockholders may not be able to resell shares of our common stock at or above the price they paid.
The trading price of our common stock is highly volatile and could be subject to wide fluctuations in response to various factors, some of which are beyond our control. These factors include those discussed in this “Risk Factors” section of this report and others such as:
announcement of a strategic transaction, including the acquisition of our company or its assets;
announcements relating to collaborations that we may enter into with respect to the development or commercialization of our product candidates;
announcements relating to the receipt, modification or termination of government contracts or grants;
success of our competitors in discovering, developing or commercializing products;
product liability claims related to our clinical trials or product candidates;
prevailing economic conditions;
additions or departures of key personnel;
business disruptions caused by earthquakes or other natural disasters;
disputes concerning our intellectual property or other proprietary rights;
FDA or other U.S. or foreign regulatory actions affecting us or our industry;
sales of our common stock by us, our executive officers and directors or stockholders in the future;
future sales or issuances of equity or debt securities by us;
lack of an active, liquid and orderly market in our common stock;
fluctuations in our quarterly operating results; and
the issuance of new or changed securities analysts’ reports or recommendations regarding us.


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In addition, the stock markets in general, and the markets for pharmaceutical, biopharmaceutical and biotechnology stocks in particular, have experienced extreme volatility that have been often unrelated to the operating performance of the issuer. These broad market fluctuations may adversely affect the trading price or liquidity of our common stock. In the past, when the market price of a stock has been volatile, holders of that stock have sometimes instituted securities class action litigation against the issuer. If any of our stockholders were to bring such a lawsuit against us, we could incur substantial costs defending the lawsuit and the attention of our management would be diverted from the operation of our business.
Our common stock may be delisted from the NASDAQ Global Market if we are unable to maintain compliance with NASDAQ’s continued listing standards.
NASDAQ imposes, among other requirements, continued listing standards including minimum bid and public float requirements. The price of our common stock must trade at or above $1.00 to comply with NASDAQ's minimum bid requirement for continued listing on the NASDAQ. If our stock trades at bid prices of less than $1.00 for a period in excess of 30 consecutive business days, the NASDAQ could send a deficiency notice to us for not remaining in compliance with the minimum bid listing standards. During the third quarter of fiscal year 2016, our common stock never traded below $1.00. However, if the closing bid price of our common stock fails to meet NASDAQ's minimum closing bid price requirement, or if we otherwise fail to meet any other applicable requirements of the NASDAQ and we are unable to regain compliance, NASDAQ may make a determination to delist our common stock.
Any delisting of our common stock could adversely affect the market liquidity of our common stock and the market price of our common stock could decrease. Furthermore, if our common stock were delisted it could adversely affect our ability to obtain financing for the continuation of our operations and/or result in the loss of confidence by investors, customers, suppliers and employees.
Our principal stockholders and management own a significant percentage of our stock and are able to exert significant control over matters subject to stockholder approval.
Based on the beneficial ownership of our common stock as of December 31, 2016, our officers and directors, together with holders of 5% or more of our outstanding common stock and their respective affiliates, beneficially own approximately 68.0% of our common stock. Accordingly, these stockholders have significant influence over the outcome of corporate actions requiring stockholder approval, including the election of directors, any merger, consolidation or sale of all or substantially all of our assets or any other significant corporate transaction. The interests of these stockholders may not be the same as or may even conflict with your interests. For example, these stockholders could delay or prevent a change of control of our company, even if such a change of control would benefit our other stockholders, which could deprive our stockholders of an opportunity to receive a premium for their common stock as part of a sale of our company or our assets and might affect the prevailing market price of our common stock. The significant concentration of stock ownership may adversely affect the trading price of our common stock due to investors’ perception that conflicts of interest may exist or arise.
We are an “emerging growth company” and we cannot be certain if the reduced disclosure requirements applicable to emerging growth companies will make our common stock less attractive to investors.
We are an “emerging growth company,” as defined in the JOBS Act, and may take advantage of certain exemptions from various reporting requirements that are applicable to other public companies that are not “emerging growth companies” including not being required to comply with the auditor attestation requirements of Section 404 of the Sarbanes‑Oxley Act, reduced disclosure obligations regarding executive compensation in our periodic reports and proxy statements and exemptions from the requirements of holding a nonbinding advisory vote on executive compensation and shareholder approval of any golden parachute payments not previously approved. We cannot predict if investors will find our common stock less attractive because we may rely on these exemptions. If some investors find our common stock less attractive as a result, there may be a less active trading market for our common stock and our stock price may be more volatile.
In addition, Section 102 of the JOBS Act also provides that an “emerging growth company” can take advantage of the extended transition period provided in Section 7(a)(2)(B) of the Securities Act of 1933, as amended, or the Securities Act, for complying with new or revised accounting standards. An “emerging growth company” can therefore delay the adoption of certain accounting standards until those standards would otherwise apply to private companies. However, we are choosing to “opt out” of such extended transition period, and as a result, we will comply with new or revised accounting standards on the relevant dates on which adoption of such standards is required for non-emerging growth companies. Section 107 of the JOBS Act provides that our decision to opt out of the extended transition period for complying with new or revised accounting standards is irrevocable.

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Future sales of our common stock or securities convertible or exchangeable for our common stock may depress our stock price.
If our existing stockholders or holders of our options sell, or indicate an intention to sell, substantial amounts of our common stock in the public market, the trading price of our common stock could decline. The perception in the market that these sales may occur could also cause the trading price of our common stock to decline. As of December 31, 2016, we have a total of 20,841,393 shares of common stock outstanding
In addition, based on the number of shares subject to outstanding awards under our 2008 Long Term Incentive Plan, or 2008 Stock Plan, as of December 31, 2016, and including the initial reserves under our 2015 Equity Incentive Award Plan, or 2015 Plan, and Employee Stock Purchase Plan, or ESPP, approximately 3.9 million shares of common stock that are either subject to outstanding options, outstanding but subject to vesting, or reserved for future issuance under the 2008 Stock Plan, 2015 Plan or ESPP will become eligible for sale in the public market to the extent permitted by the provisions of various vesting schedules. We also filed a registration statement permitting certain shares of common stock issued in the future pursuant to the 2008 Plan, 2015 Plan and ESPP to be freely resold by plan participants in the public market, subject to the applicable vesting schedules and, for shares held by directors, executive officers and other affiliates, volume limitations under Rule 144 under the Securities Act. The 2015 Plan and ESPP also contain provisions for the annual increase of the number of shares reserved for issuance under such plans, which shares we also intend to register. If the shares we may issue from time to time under the 2008 Stock Plan, 2015 Plan or ESPP are sold, or if it is perceived that they will be sold, by the award recipient in the public market, the trading price of our common stock could decline.
Certain holders of approximately 13.6 million shares of our common stock at December 31, 2016 are entitled to rights with respect to the registration of their shares under the Securities Act. Registration of these shares under the Securities Act would result in the shares becoming freely tradable without restriction under the Securities Act, except for shares purchased by affiliates. Sales of such shares could also cause the trading price of our common stock to decline.
An active, liquid and orderly market for shares of our common stock may not be sustained.
Prior to our initial public offering in October 2015, there had been no public market for our common stock, and an active public market for our shares may not be sustained. Further, certain of our existing institutional investors, including investors affiliated with certain of our directors, purchased approximately 2.4 million shares of common stock in our initial public offering and consequently fewer shares may be actively traded in the public market because these stockholders are restricted from selling the shares by restrictions under applicable securities laws, which would reduce the liquidity of the market for our common stock. If an active market for shares of our common stock is not maintained it may be difficult for our stockholders’ to sell their shares at the time they wish to sell them or at a price that they consider reasonable or it may result in volatility in our stock price. An inactive market may also impair our ability to raise capital by selling shares and may impair our ability to acquire other businesses or technologies or in-license new product candidates using our shares as consideration.
Our quarterly operating results may fluctuate significantly or may fall below the expectations of investors or securities analysts, each of which may cause our stock price to fluctuate or decline.
We expect our operating results to be subject to quarterly fluctuations. Our net loss and other operating results will be affected by numerous factors, including:
variations in the level of our operating expenses;
receipt, modification or termination of government contracts or grants, and the timing of payments we receive under these arrangements;
our execution of any collaborative, licensing or similar arrangements, and the timing of payments we may make under these arrangements; and
any intellectual property infringement lawsuit or opposition, interference or cancellation proceeding in which we may become involved.

If our quarterly operating results fall below the expectations of investors or securities analysts, the price of our common stock could decline substantially. Furthermore, any quarterly fluctuations in our operating results may, in turn, cause the price of our stock to fluctuate substantially. We believe that quarterly comparisons of our financial results are not necessarily meaningful and should not be relied upon as an indication of our future performance.

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Provisions of our charter documents or Delaware law could delay or prevent an acquisition of our company, even if the acquisition would be beneficial to our stockholders, and could make it more difficult for you to change management.
Provisions in our amended and restated certificate of incorporation and our amended and restated bylaws may discourage, delay or prevent a merger, acquisition or other change in control that stockholders may consider favorable, including transactions in which stockholders might otherwise receive a premium for their shares. In addition, these provisions may frustrate or prevent any attempt by our stockholders to replace or remove our current management by making it more difficult to replace or remove our board of directors. These provisions include:
a classified board of directors so that not all directors are elected at one time;
a prohibition on stockholder action through written consent;
no cumulative voting in the election of directors;
the exclusive right of our board of directors to elect a director to fill a vacancy created by the expansion of the board of directors or the resignation, death or removal of a director;
a requirement that special meetings of stockholders be called only by the board of directors, the chairman of the board of directors, the chief executive officer or, in the absence of a chief executive officer, the president;
an advance notice requirement for stockholder proposals and nominations;
the authority of our board of directors to issue preferred stock with such terms as our board of directors may determine; and
a requirement of approval of not less than 66 2/3% of all outstanding shares of our capital stock entitled to vote to amend any bylaws by stockholder action, or to amend specific provisions of our certificate of incorporation.

In addition, Delaware law prohibits a publicly held Delaware corporation from engaging in a business combination with an interested stockholder, generally a person who, together with its affiliates, owns or within the last three years has owned 15% or more of our voting stock, for a period of three years after the date of the transaction in which the person became an interested stockholder, unless the business combination is approved in a prescribed manner. Accordingly, Delaware law may discourage, delay or prevent a change in control of our company. Furthermore, our amended and restated certificate of incorporation will specify that the Court of Chancery of the State of Delaware will be the sole and exclusive forum for most legal actions involving actions brought against us by stockholders. We believe this provision benefits us by providing increased consistency in the application of Delaware law by chancellors particularly experienced in resolving corporate disputes, efficient administration of cases on a more expedited schedule relative to other forums and protection against the burdens of multi‑forum litigation. However, the provision may have the effect of discouraging lawsuits against our directors and officers. The enforceability of similar choice of forum provisions in other companies’ certificates of incorporation has been challenged in legal proceedings, and it is possible that, in connection with any applicable action brought against us, a court could find the choice of forum provisions contained in our amended and restated certificate of incorporation to be inapplicable or unenforceable in such action.
Provisions in our charter and other provisions of Delaware law could limit the price that investors are willing to pay in the future for shares of our common stock.
Our employment agreements with our officers may require us to pay severance benefits to any of those persons who are terminated in connection with a change of control of us, which could harm our business, financial condition or results of operations.
Our officers are parties to employment agreements providing for aggregate cash payments of up to approximately $2.5 million at December 31, 2016 for severance and other benefits in the event of a termination of employment in connection with a change of control of us. The payment of these severance benefits could harm our business, financial condition and results of operations. In addition, these potential severance payments may discourage or prevent third parties from seeking a business combination with us.
We do not anticipate paying any cash dividends on our common stock in the foreseeable future; therefore, capital appreciation, if any, of our common stock will be your sole source of gain for the foreseeable future.
We have never declared or paid cash dividends on our common stock. We do not anticipate paying any cash dividends on our common stock in the foreseeable future. We currently intend to retain all available funds and any future earnings to fund our operations. In addition, the terms of any future debt financing arrangement may contain terms prohibiting or limiting the amount of dividends that may be declared or paid on our common stock. As a result, capital appreciation, if any, of our common stock will be your sole source of gain for the foreseeable future.

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If securities or industry analysts do not publish research, or publish inaccurate or unfavorable research, about our business, our stock price and trading volume could decline.
The trading market for our common stock will depend, in part, on the research and reports that securities or industry analysts publish about us or our business. Securities and industry analysts do not currently, and may never, publish research on our company. If no securities or industry analysts commence coverage of our company, the trading price for our common stock would likely be negatively impacted. In the event securities or industry analysts initiate coverage, if one or more of the analysts who cover us downgrade our common stock or publish inaccurate or unfavorable research about our business, our stock price would likely decline. In addition, if our operating results fail to meet the forecast of analysts, our stock price would likely decline. If one or more of these analysts cease coverage of our company or fail to publish reports on us regularly, demand for our common stock could decrease, which might cause our stock price and trading volume to decline.
Changes in, or interpretations of, accounting rules and regulations could result in unfavorable accounting charges or require us to change our compensation policies.
Accounting methods and policies for biopharmaceutical companies, including policies governing revenue recognition, research and development and related expenses and accounting for stock‑based compensation, are subject to further review, interpretation and guidance from relevant accounting authorities, including the SEC. Changes to, or interpretations of, accounting methods or policies may require us to reclassify, restate or otherwise change or revise our financial statements, including those contained in this periodic report.
ITEM 1B. UNRESOLVED STAFF COMMENTS 
 
None.
 
ITEM 2.   PROPERTIES
 
Our corporate headquarters are located in Austin, Texas and consist of approximately 924 square feet of office space for which we have a lease that expires on May 31, 2017. In addition, in June 2016, we entered into a lease agreement for approximately 23,578 square feet of office and laboratory space, and we have not occupied this space as we are evaluating our strategic alternatives with a goal to enhance stockholder value, including the possibility of a merger or sale of the Company. The initial term of such lease expires in January 2027 and may be extended by us for up to two consecutive 60-month terms. We believe that our existing facilities are sufficient for our needs for the foreseeable future.
ITEM 3.   LEGAL PROCEEDINGS
 
From time to time, we are subject to various legal proceedings, claims and administrative proceedings that arise in the ordinary course of our business activities. Although the results of litigation and claims cannot be predicted with certainty, as of the date of this report, we do not believe we are party to any claim, proceeding or litigation the outcome of which, if determined adversely to us, would individually or in the aggregate be reasonably expected to have a material adverse effect on our business. Regardless of the outcome, litigation can have an adverse impact on us because of defense and settlement costs, diversion of management resources and other factors.
ITEM 4.   MINE SAFETY DISCLOSURES
 
Not applicable.

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PART II
 
ITEM 5. MARKET FOR REGISTRANT'S COMMON EQUITY, RELATED STOCKHOLDER MATTERS, AND ISSUER PURCHASES OF EQUITY SECURITIES
 
Price Range of Common Stock

Our common stock has been publicly traded on The NASDAQ Stock Market LLC, or NASDAQ, under the symbol “MIRN” since the initial public offering, or IPO, of our common stock on October 1, 2015. Prior to that time, there was no public market for our common stock. The following table sets forth on a per share basis, for the periods indicated, the low and high sale prices of our common stock as reported by NASDAQ.
 
 
High
 
Low
Year Ended December 31, 2016
 
 
 
 
First quarter
 
$
6.65

 
$
3.57

Second quarter
 
$
4.94

 
$
3.96

Third quarter
 
$
4.45

 
$
1.82

Fourth quarter
 
$
1.98

 
$
1.12

 
 
 
 
 
Year Ended December 31, 2015
 
 
 
 
Fourth quarter (beginning October 1)
 
$
11.01

 
$
5.54

 
Holders of Record
 
At March 1, 2017, there were approximately 144 stockholders of record of our common stock, and the closing price per share of our common stock was $2.29. Since many of our shares of common stock are held by brokers and other institutions on behalf of stockholders, we are unable to estimate the total number of stockholders represented by these record holders.
Dividends
 
We have never declared or paid cash dividends on our capital stock. However, we issued shares of common stock to the holders of Series C convertible preferred stock and Series D convertible preferred stock as part of our IPO under the terms of our then-effective certificate of incorporation as a result of an accruing paid-in-kind dividend.
We intend to retain all available funds and any future earnings, if any, to fund the development and expansion of our business and we do not anticipate paying any cash dividends in the foreseeable future. Any future determination related to dividend policy will be made at the discretion of our board of directors and will depend upon, among other factors, our results of operations, financial condition, capital requirements, contractual restrictions, business prospects and other factors our board of directors may deem relevant.
Stock Performance Graph
 
The following graph illustrates a comparison of the total cumulative stockholder return on our common stock since September 30, 2015, which is the date our common stock first began trading on NASDAQ, to two indices: the NASDAQ Composite Index and the NASDAQ Biotechnology Index. The graph assumes an initial investment of $100 on September 30, 2015. The stockholder return shown in the graph below is not necessarily indicative of future performance, and we do not make or endorse any predictions as to future stockholder returns. This graph shall not be deemed “soliciting material” or be deemed “filed” for purposes of Section 18 of the Exchange Act, or otherwise subject to the liabilities under that Section, and shall not be deemed to be incorporated by reference into any of our filings under the Securities Act, whether made before or after the date hereof and irrespective of any general incorporation language in any such filing.

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STOCKPERFORMANCEGRAPH2A01.JPG
Recent Sales of Unregistered Securities
 
From January 1, 2016 through December 31, 2016, we have not issued any securities in a transaction not registered under the Securities Act that have not been previously disclosed in a Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q or Current Report on Form 8-K. 
Use of Proceeds
 
On September 30, 2015, the U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission declared effective our registration statement on Form S-1 (File No. 333-206544), as amended, filed in connection with our initial public offering. Pursuant to the registration statement, we registered the offer and sale of 6,250,000 shares of our common stock with an aggregate offering price of approximately $43.8 million, as well as the issuance of an additional 704,962 shares of our common stock pursuant to the underwriters’ partial exercise of their option to purchase additional shares, for an aggregate offering price of approximately $4.9 million. In total, we issued and sold an aggregate of 6,954,962 shares of our common stock at a price to the public of $7.00 per share for an aggregate offering price of approximately $48.7 million. The managing underwriters of the offering were Citigroup, Leerink Partners, Oppenheimer & Co. and Cantor Fitzgerald & Co. After deducting underwriting discounts and commissions and offering expenses paid or payable by us of $5.0 million, the aggregate net proceeds from the offering were $43.7 million. No offering expenses were paid or are payable, directly or indirectly, to our directors or officers, to persons owning 10% or more of any class of our equity securities or to any of our affiliates.
The net proceeds from our initial public offering have been invested in a variety of capital preservation investments, including short-term, investment-grade, interest-bearing instruments and U.S. government securities. Following the close of the Company's Phase 1 clinical trial of MRX34, the Company is evaluating strategic alternatives with a goal to enhance stockholder value, including the possibility of a merger or sale of the Company, and has discontinued further research and development activities to reduce operating expenses while it evaluates these opportunities. We currently expect to use the remaining net proceeds from our initial public offering primarily for working capital and other general corporate purposes, which include our activities to evaluate and pursue strategic alternatives.
Purchases of Equity Securities by the Issuer and Affiliated Purchasers
None.



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ITEM 6.   SELECTED FINANCIAL DATA
 
The following selected statement of operations data for the years ended December 31, 2014 , 2015 and 2016 , and the selected balance sheet data at December 31, 2014 , 2015 and 2016 have been derived from our audited financial statements included elsewhere in this Annual Report on Form 10-K. Our historical results for any prior period are not necessarily indicative of results to be expected in any future period. 
 
The information set forth below should be read in conjunction with the “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations” section of this Annual Report on Form 10-K and with our financial statements and notes thereto included elsewhere in this Annual Report on Form 10-K.
 
 
 
Year Ended December 31,
 
 
2016
 
2015
 
2014
 
2013
 
 
(in thousands, except share and per share data)
Statement of Operations Data:
 
    

 
    

 
    

 
 
Operating expenses:
 
 

 
 

 
 

 
 

Research and development
 
$
13,930

 
$
18,947

 
$
10,545

 
$
4,391

General and administrative
 
8,118

 
6,080

 
3,369

 
2,384

Restructuring expense
 
4,442

 

 

 

Loss on disposal of assets
 
128

 

 

 

Write-off of offering expenses
 

 

 
1,920

 

Total operating expenses
 
26,618

 
25,027

 
15,834

 
6,775

Other income (expense):
 
 

 
 

 
 

 
 

Interest income (expense)
 
350

 
44

 

 

Change in fair value of option liability
 

 

 

 
339

Net loss
 
$
(26,268
)
 
$
(24,983
)
 
$
(15,834
)
 
$
(6,436
)
Less: Accretion and dividends on convertible preferred stock
 

 
(4,320
)
 
(2,824
)
 
(2,324
)
Net loss attributable to common stockholders
 
$
(26,268
)
 
$
(29,303
)
 
$
(18,658
)
 
$
(8,760
)
Net loss per share attributable to common stockholders, basic and diluted
 
$
(1.26
)
 
$
(5.85
)
 
$
(291.00
)
 
$
4,408.65

Common shares used to compute basic and diluted net loss per share attributable to common stockholders
 
5,010,323

 
5,010,323

 
64,131

 
1,987

 
 
At December 31,
 
 
2016
 
2015
 
2014
 
2013
 
 
(in thousands)
Balance Sheet Data:
 
    
 
    
 
    
 
 

Cash and cash equivalents
 
$
16,432

 
$
89,713

 
$
9,319

 
$
23,182

Short-term marketable securities
 
44,066

 

 

 

Total assets
 
64,166

 
90,917

 
9,825

 
23,684

Total liabilities
 
3,814

 
5,901

 
2,499

 
1,145

Convertible preferred stock
 

 

 
55,277

 
52,453

Common stock
 
21

 
21

 

 

Additional paid-in capital
 
163,126

 
161,518

 

 
890

Accumulated deficit
 
(102,791
)
 
(76,523
)
 
(47,951
)
 
(30,804
)
Other comprehensive income
 
(4
)
 

 

 

Total stockholders’ (deficit) equity
 
64,166

 
85,016

 
(47,951
)
 
(29,914
)

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ITEM 7. MANAGEMENT’S DISCUSSION AND ANALYSIS OF FINANCIAL CONDITION AND   RESULTS OF OPERATIONS
 
You should read the following management’s discussion and analysis of our financial condition and results together with the section entitled “Selected Financial Data” and our financial statements and related notes included elsewhere in this Annual Report on Form 10-K. This discussion and other parts of this Annual Report contain forward-looking statements that involve risk and uncertainties, such as statements of our plans, objectives, expectations and intentions. Our actual results could differ materially from those discussed in these forward-looking statements. Factors that could cause or contribute to such differences include, but are not limited to, those discussed in the "Risk Factors" section in Part I Item IA.

Overview
 
We are a biopharmaceutical company that has historically focused on microRNA-based oncology therapeutics, which are short ribonucleic acid, or RNA, molecules, or oligonucleotides.
Our first product candidate, MRX34, was studied as a single agent in a Phase 1 clinical trial. In September 2016, we voluntarily halted the Phase 1 trial following multiple immune-related serious adverse events, or SAEs, observed in patients dosed with MRX34 in the trial. Subsequently, we received notification from the U.S. Food and Drug Administration, or the FDA, that the Investigational New Drug Application, or IND, for MRX34 was on full clinical hold. Following our suspension of the Phase 1 trial for MRX34 and the FDA’s clinical hold on the IND for MRX34, we discontinued development of MRX34 and our microRNA product pipeline.
In November 2016, we discontinued research and development activities to reduce operating expenses while we evaluate our strategic alternatives with a goal to enhance stockholder value, including the possibility of a merger or sale of the Company. We also initiated a plan in November 2016 to reduce personnel and expenses to preserve capital and further streamline our operations consistent with our decision to discontinue development of MRX34 and our microRNA product pipeline. We expect to devote significant time and resources to identifying and evaluating strategic alternatives, however, there can be no assurance that such activities will result in any agreements or transactions that will enhance shareholder value. Further, any strategic transaction that is completed ultimately may not deliver the anticipated benefits or enhance shareholder value.
We were incorporated in 2007 under the laws of Delaware and were maintained as a wholly‑owned subsidiary of our former parent company, Asuragen, Inc., or Asuragen, until the end of 2009, when we became an independent entity.
Our operations have historically focused on developing our understanding of and capabilities in microRNA biology, identifying potential product candidates, undertaking preclinical studies, initiating and conducting a clinical trial, protecting and enhancing our intellectual property estate and providing general and administrative support for these activities. We have not generated any revenue from product sales and, to date, have funded our operations primarily through the private placement of convertible preferred stock, federal and state government grants, offerings of our common stock, and support from our former parent company, Asuragen. From our inception through December 31, 2016 , we have raised an aggregate of approximately $167.3 million to fund our operations, of which approximately $89.9 million was from the issuance of preferred stock for cash and assets, $48.7 million from a public offering of our common stock, $16.8 million from a private placement of our common stock and $11.9 million was from federal and state grants.
 
Since our inception, we have incurred significant operating losses. Our net loss was $26.3 million for the year ended December 31, 2016 . At December 31, 2016, we had an accumulated deficit of $102.8 million. We expect to continue to incur significant expenses and operating losses. Our net losses may fluctuate significantly from quarter to quarter and from year to year. We anticipate that our expenses will decrease as we proceed with our reduction in force; discontinue our research and development activities; and focus on evaluating our strategic alternatives with a goal to enhance stockholder value, including the possibility of a merger or sale of the Company.
 
Financial Operations Overview
 
Revenue
 
We have not generated any revenue from product sales or from collaborations. In the future, we may generate revenue following a potential strategic transaction, which may result in a clinical asset. Revenue may fluctuate from period to period, and the timing and extent of any future revenue will depend on our ability to consummate a strategic transaction.
 

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Research and Development Expenses
 
Research and development expenses have consisted primarily of costs incurred for our research activities, including our historical drug discovery efforts, and the development of our product candidates, which included the following:
 
employee‑related expenses, including salaries, benefits, travel and stock‑based compensation;
external research and development expenses incurred under arrangements with third parties, such as contract research organizations, or CROs, consultants and our scientific advisory board;
lab supplies, and acquiring, developing and manufacturing preclinical study materials in accordance with Good Laboratory Practices;
costs of clinical trials, including costs for management, investigator fees and related vendors that provide services for the clinical trials;
costs to manufacture the drug used in the clinical trials in accordance with Good Manufacturing Practices;
license and milestone fees;
development and prosecution of intellectual property; and
costs of facilities, depreciation and other expenses.

In September 2016, Mirna announced its decision to close the Phase 1 study of MRX34 and voluntarily halted the enrollment and dosing of patients in the study. Further, in November 2016, the Company discontinued research and development activities to reduce operating expenses.

Research and development costs have been expensed as incurred. In certain circumstances, we have made nonrefundable advance payments to purchase goods and services for future use pursuant to contractual arrangements. In those instances, we deferred and recognized an expense in the period that we receive or consume the goods or services.
 
Our research and development expenses have been offset by proceeds derived from federal and state grants. These government grants, which have supplemented our research efforts on specific projects, generally provided for reimbursement of approved costs, as defined in the terms of the grant awards. The proceeds from these reimbursement grants are treated as a reduction to the associated expenses as the allowable expenses are incurred.
 
Prior to discontinuing our research and development activities, at any point in time, we typically had various early stage research and drug discovery projects ongoing. Our internal resources, employees and infrastructure were not directly tied to any one research or drug discovery project and were typically deployed across multiple projects. As such, we did not maintain information regarding the costs incurred for these early stage research and drug discovery programs on a basis. However, we historically spent the vast majority of our research and development resources on our first product candidate, MRX34, which has been placed on full clinical hold by the FDA.

We anticipate that our research and development expenses will decrease as we initiate our reduction in force; discontinue our research and development activities; focus on evaluating our strategic alternatives with a goal to enhance stockholder value, including the possibility of a merger or sale of the Company; and the complete closure of the Phase 1 clinical trial for MRX34.

General and Administrative Expenses
 
General and administrative expenses consist primarily of salaries and related benefits, including stock‑based compensation, related to our executive, finance and support functions. Other general and administrative expenses include allocated facility‑related costs not otherwise included in research and development expenses, travel expenses and professional fees for auditing, tax and legal services. We expect that general and administrative expenses related to our operations will decrease as a result of the workforce reduction and discontinuance of our research and development activities. These decreases may be offset in whole or in part following the change in our corporate strategy to focus on pursuing potential strategic initiatives to enhance stockholder value.
 
Recent Accounting Pronouncements


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For recent accounting pronouncements see Note 2. Summary of Significant Accounting Policies of Notes to the Financial Statements in Part II, Item 8 of this Report.
 
Critical Accounting Policies and Estimates
 
This management’s discussion and analysis of financial condition and results of operations is based on our financial statements, which have been prepared in accordance with accounting principles generally accepted in the United States, or GAAP. The preparation of these financial statements requires us to make estimates and assumptions that affect the reported amounts of assets and liabilities and the disclosure of contingent assets and liabilities at the date of the financial statements, as well as the revenue and expenses incurred during the reported periods. On an ongoing basis, we evaluate our estimates and judgments, including those related to stock‑based compensation, clinical trial and pre-clinical study accruals, and restructuring expenses. We base our estimates on historical experience and on various other factors that we believe are reasonable under the circumstances, the results of which form the basis for making judgments about the carrying value of assets and liabilities that are not apparent from other sources. Changes in estimates are reflected in reported results for the period in which they become known. Actual results may differ from these estimates under different assumptions or conditions.
 
While our significant accounting policies are described in the Notes to our financial statements appearing elsewhere in this Annual Report on Form 10-K, we believe that the following critical accounting policies are most important to understanding and evaluating our reported financial results.
 
Stock‑Based Compensation
 
We account for our stock‑based compensation awards in accordance with ASC Topic 718, Compensation—Stock Compensation, or “ASC 718”. ASC 718 requires all stock‑based payments to employees, including grants of employee stock options, to be recognized in the statements of operations based on their grant date fair values. For stock options granted to employees and to members of our board of directors for their services on the board of directors, we estimate the grant date fair value of each option award using the Black‑Scholes option‑pricing model. The use of the Black‑Scholes option‑pricing model requires our management to make assumptions with respect to the expected term of the option, the expected volatility of the common stock consistent with the expected life of the option, risk‑free interest rates and expected dividend yields of the common stock. For awards subject to service‑based vesting conditions, we recognize stock‑based compensation expense, net of estimated forfeitures, equal to the grant date fair value of stock options on a straight‑line basis over the requisite service period.
 
Clinical Trial and Pre-Clinical Study Accruals
 
Prior to discontinuing our research and development activities, we estimated pre-clinical study and clinical trial expenses pursuant to contracts with research institutions and contract research organizations that conduct and manage pre-clinical studies and clinical trials on our behalf. These estimates were based on the level of service performed and the underlying agreement. Further, we accrued expenses related to clinical trials based on the level of patient enrollment and other activities according to the related agreements. At such time, we monitored patient enrollment levels and other activities to the extent reasonably possible and adjusted estimates accordingly. If actual costs incurred or the timing of services varied from our estimate, we adjusted the accrual accordingly. On September 20, 2016 we announced our decision to close the ongoing Phase 1 study of MRX34 and halted enrollment and dosing of patients in the study.
 
Restructuring

Following the closing of the Phase 1 MRX34 clinical trial, we implemented a workforce reduction in the fourth quarter of 2016 to reduce operating expenses while we evaluate strategic alternatives. The majority of severance and benefits payments were settled during the first quarter of 2017. We entered into retention agreements with key employees if these employees remained with us until June 30, 2017 or were terminated by the Company without cause prior to such date. We have recognized the restructuring liability for such retention agreements over our employees' service period.

In accordance with ASC 420, Exit and Disposal Cost Obligations , we have also recognized contract termination costs in connection with a leased property we intended to occupy as our corporate headquarters and research facility, as well as a temporary lab in use prior to the suspension of the Company's research and development activities. In addition, we have recognized asset impairments related to our lab equipment used in the Phase 1 clinical trial, construction in process, and other property and equipment for which we do not expect to receive a future benefit.

Amounts recorded in restructuring charges can result from a complex series of judgments about future events and uncertainties and can heavily rely on estimates and assumptions.  

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Results of Operations

Comparison of years ended  December 31, 2016  and  2015 :
 
 
 
Year Ended
 
 
 
 
 
 
December 31, 
 
Dollar
 
 
 
 
2016
 
2015
 
Change
 
% Change
 
 
(in thousands)
Statement of operations data:
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Operating expenses:
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Research and development, before grant reimbursement
 
$
13,986

 
$
19,405

 
$
(5,419
)
 
(27.9
)%
Less grant reimbursement
 
(56
)
 
(458
)
 
402

 
(87.8
)%
Research and development
 
13,930

 
18,947

 
(5,017
)
 
(26.5
)%
General and administrative
 
8,118

 
6,080

 
2,038

 
33.5
 %
Restructuring expenses
 
4,442

 

 
4,442

 
100.0
 %
Loss on Assets
 
128

 

 
128

 
100.0
 %
Interest income
 
(350
)
 
(44
)
 
(306
)
 
100.0
 %
Net loss
 
$
26,268

 
$
24,983

 
$
1,285

 
5.1
 %
 
Research and Development Expenses
 
Research and development expenses were $13.9 million for the year ended December 31, 2016, which was a decrease of $5.0 million, or 27%, compared to research and development expenses of approximately $18.9 million for the year ended December 31, 2015. The decrease in the year ended December 31, 2016 was primarily due to the following: 

A decrease of approximately $6.5 million in general research and development expenses following our decision to close the Phase 1 study of MRX34 in September 2016 and voluntarily halt the enrollment and dosing of patients in the study and subsequently discontinued further research and development activities. In addition, we incurred certain one-time costs associated with the development and manufacturing of MRX34 during the year ended December 31, 2015, our only product candidate that was in clinical trials through September 2016.
An offsetting increase of approximately $1.3 million in employee compensation and benefits due to increased headcount compared to the prior period.
 
Research and development spending was partially offset by approximately $56,000 of grant reimbursements for the year ended December 31, 2016, compared to reimbursement of approximately $458,000 for the year ended December 31, 2015. The decrease is primarily due to two grants which expired in August 2015 and a third grant expiring in August 2016.

General and Administrative Expenses
 
General and administrative expenses were approximately $8.1 million for the year ended December 31, 2016 , which was an increase of approximately $2.0 million, or 34%, compared to the year ended December 31, 2015 . The increase for the year ended December 31, 2015 was primarily due to the following:

Approximately $1.0 million for additional costs associated with operating as a publicly-traded company, including higher legal, audit, insurance, professional fees and administrative costs.
Approximately $1.0 million of increased employee compensation, benefits and stock compensation expense due to increased headcount and changes in compensation, of which $455,000 related to increased payroll and benefits expenses and $545,000 related to stock-based compensation expense


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Restructuring Charges
 
Restructuring charges were approximately $4.4 million for the year ended December 31, 2016 . We did not have restructuring charges during the year ended December 31, 2015 . On September 20, 2016, we announced our decision to close the Phase 1 clinical trial of MRX34, voluntarily halted the enrollment and dosing of patients in the study and subsequently discontinued our research and development activities. Following the announcement, we received notice from the FDA that our Investigational New Drug MRX 34 had been placed on full clinical hold. Following our announcement and notification from the FDA, our Board of Directors approved a reduction of the total number of our full-time employees from 36 to 12 . We also committed to retention payments to certain key employees if such employees remained with us until June 30, 2017 or were terminated by us without cause prior to such date. The restructuring expenses recognized during the year ended December 31, 2016 included approximately $1.5 million for employee severance and benefits, $1.5 million for lease facility termination costs, and $1.4 million for non-cash impairment charges of property and equipment. The majority of employee severance and related benefits are expected to be settled in the first quarter of 2017. We expect to incur additional restructuring charges of approximately $0.3 million through the six months ended June 30, 2017.
 
Comparison of year ended December 31, 2015 and 2014 :
 
 
 
Year Ended
 
 
 
 
 
 
December 31, 
 
Dollar
 
 
 
 
2015
 
2014
 
Change
 
% Change
 
 
 (in thousands)
Statement of operations data:
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Operating expenses:
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Research and development, before grant reimbursement
 
$
19,405

 
$
10,626

 
$
8,779

 
82.6
 %
Less grant reimbursement
 
(458
)
 
(81
)
 
(377
)
 
465.4
 %
Research and development
 
18,947

 
10,545

 
8,402

 
79.7
 %
General and administrative
 
6,080

 
3,369

 
2,711

 
80.5
 %
Write off of offering expenses
 

 
1,920

 
(1,920
)
 
(100.0
)%
Interest income
 
(44
)
 

 
(44
)
 
100.0
 %
Net loss
 
$
24,983

 
$
15,834

 
$
9,149

 
57.8
 %
 
Research and Development Expenses
 
Research and development spending, prior to the offset of grant reimbursements, was $19.4 million for the year ended December 31, 2015, which was an increase of approximately $8.8 million, or 83%, compared to research and development spending, prior to the offset of grant reimbursements, of $10.6 million for the year ended December 31, 2014. After giving effect to the offset of grant reimbursements, research and development expenses were $18.9 million for the year ended December 31, 2015, which was an increase of $8.4 million, or 80%, compared to research and development expenses of approximately $10.5 million for the year ended December 31, 2014. The increase in the year ended December 31, 2015 was primarily due to increased clinical trial costs related to our Phase 1 clinical trial, including a higher number of patients, additional investigator sites related to the increased trial activity; increased personnel costs due to increases in headcount, and increased intellectual property and licensing costs.
 
Research and development spending was partially offset by approximately $458,000 of grant reimbursements for the year ended December 31, 2015, compared to reimbursement of approximately $81,000 for the same period in 2014. The increase was due to a higher volume of work being performed on the research funded by the federal grants.
 
General and Administrative Expenses  
    
General and administrative expenses were approximately $6.1 million for the year ended December 31, 2015, which was an increase of approximately $2.7 million, or 81%, compared to the same period in 2014. General and administrative expenses increased primarily due to increased personnel-related expenses, higher outside professional costs, consulting costs and recruiting costs.


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Write-off of Offering Expenses
 
We deferred costs incurred for a planned initial public offering, or IPO, through August 2014, which included legal, audit, tax and other professional fees. The IPO was delayed and, as a result, we recorded a write-off of deferred offering costs of $1.9 million during the year ended December 31, 2014. Deferred offering costs incurred through December 31, 2015 have been recorded as a reduction of proceeds from a concurrent private placement and the IPO.
 
Liquidity and Capital Resources
 
Liquidity and Capital Expenditures
 
Since inception, we have raised $167.3 million to fund our operations, of which approximately $89.9 million was from the issuance of preferred stock for cash and assets, $48.7 million was from a public offering of our common stock, $16.8 million was from a private placement of our common stock and $11.9 million was from federal and state grants. At December 31, 2016, we had $16.4 million of cash and cash equivalents and $44.1 invested in marketable securities for a total of $60.5 million in liquid assets. Our primary uses of cash are to fund operating expenses and evaluate strategic alternatives. Cash used to fund operating expenses is impacted by the timing of when we pay these expenses, as reflected in the change in our outstanding accounts payable and accrued expenses. 
    
We believe that our existing cash, cash equivalents and marketable securities as of December 31, 2016, will be sufficient to meet our anticipated cash requirements for at least the next 12 months. However, our forecast of the period of time through which our financial resources will be adequate to support our operations is a forward‑looking statement that involves risks and uncertainties, and actual results could vary materially.
 
Our future capital requirements are difficult to forecast and will depend on many factors, including: 
our ability to identify and consummate a strategic transaction for the Company;
the timing and nature of any strategic transactions that we undertake;
whether we enter into a partnership or business combination;
our ability to establish and maintain collaboration partnerships, in-license/out-license or other similar arrangements and the financial terms of such agreements; and
the cost incurred in responding to disruptive actions by activist stakeholders.
In addition, certain executive officers are entitled to certain payments if they are terminated without cause or as a result of a change in control. Upon termination without cause, and not as a result of death or disability, each of such officers is entitled to receive payment of base salary for 9 to 12 months following termination of employment and certain officers will be entitled to continue to receive coverage under medical and dental benefit plans for 9 to 12 months or until such officers are covered under a separate plan from another employer. Upon a termination other than for cause or with good reason following a change in control, each of such officers is entitled to receive payment of base salary for 12 to 18 months following termination of employment and 100% to 150% of the executive's target bonus pain in a single cash lump sum. In addition, the officers will be entitled to continue to receive coverage under medical and dental benefit plans for 12 to 18 months or until such officers are covered under a separate plan from another employer.

The following table shows a summary of our cash flows for the year ended December 31, 2016 and 2015 :
 

33


 
 
Year Ended
 
 
December 31, 
 
 
2016
 
2015
 
2014
 
 
(in thousands)
Net cash provided by (used in):
 
 
 
 
 
 
Operating activities
 
$
(24,805
)
 
$
(21,135
)
 
$
(13,970
)
Investing activities
 
(48,491
)
 
(251
)
 
(102
)
Financing activities
 
16

 
101,780

 
209

Net increase (decrease)
 
$
(73,280
)
 
$
80,394

 
$
(13,863
)
 
Operating Activities
 
Net cash used in operating activities was $24.8 million and $21.1 million for the year ended December 31, 2016 and 2015 , respectively. The increase in overall spending for operating activities of approximately $3.7 million was due to increased headcount and personnel expenses, increased compliance costs related to operating as a public company for a full year, payment of licensing fees accrued at December 31, 2015, and severance and benefits payments in connection with the workforce reduction initiated by us in November 2016. The increase was partially offset by a decrease in research and development expenditures following our decision to close the ongoing Phase 1 study of MRX34 in September 2016 and voluntarily halt the enrollment and dosing of patients in the study, as well as discontinuing further research and development activities.
 
Net cash used in operating activities was $21.1 million and $14.0 million for the years ended December 31, 2015 and 2014, respectively. The increase in overall spending for operating activities of approximately $7.1 million was due to increased headcount and personnel expenses, increased spending for clinical trials and intellectual property related expenses and higher license fees for 2015. The increase was partially offset by the one-time write-off of IPO offering-related costs in August 2014.

Investing Activities
 
Net cash used in investing activities for the periods presented relates primarily to the purchase of marketable securities during the year ended December 31, 2016. We invested $103.1 million in US treasury, US government agency and corporate debt securities with maturities greater than 90 days using surplus proceeds received in connection with our IPO and concurrent private placement in October 2015, partially offset by maturities of debt securities during the period of $58.8 million. In addition, the Company obtained a standby letter of credit of $2.4 million in connection with the lease entered into in June 2016 reflected in fiscal year 2016 investing activities as restricted cash.

For the year ended December 31, 2016, 2015, and 2014, total amounts spent on the purchase of fixed assets were approximately $1,729,000, $313,000, and $102,000 respectively.

Financing Activities
    
Net cash provided by financing activities was $16,000 for the year ended December 31, 2016, which was due to the exercise of stock options.

Net cash provided by financing activities was approximately $101.8 million for the year ended December 31, 2015, which was due to the offering of our Series D convertible preferred stock, as well as our IPO and concurrent private placement.
 
For the year ended December 31, 2014 net cash provided by financing activities of $16.4 million was due to the net proceeds from the second funding round of our Series C convertible preferred stock in December 2013.
 
Contractual Obligations and Commitments
 
The following table presents payments due under the Company’s contractual obligations as of December 31, 2016:


34


 
 
Payments Due by Period
 
Total

Less than 1 Year

1-3 Years

3-5 Years

Over 5 Years

Operating lease
6,917,376

450,929

1,248,219

1,324,311

3,893,916

Other
73,736

73,736

 
 
 
     Total
6,991,112

524,665

1,248,219

1,324,311

3,893,916


 
Off‑Balance Sheet Arrangements
 
We did not have during the periods presented, and we do not currently have, any off‑balance sheet arrangements, as defined in the rules and regulations of the Securities and Exchange Commission.
 
Segment Information
 
We have one primary business activity and operate as one reportable segment.
 
 
ITEM 7A.   QUANTITATIVE AND QUALITATIVE DISCLOSURES ABOUT MARKET RISK
 
The market risk inherent in our financial instruments and in our financial position represents the potential loss arising from adverse changes in interest rates. At December 31, 2016, we had cash and cash equivalents of $16.4 million, consisting of cash, interest-bearing money market accounts and U.S. treasury and agency securities with maturities of less than 90 days when purchased. At December 31, 2016, we had short-term marketable securities of $44.1 million, consisting of U.S. treasury and agency securities and investment-grade corporate debt securities with maturities greater than 90 days but less than 180 days when purchased. Our primary exposure to market risk is interest rate sensitivity, which is affected by changes in the general level of U.S. interest rates. Due to the short-term maturities of our cash equivalents and the low risk profile of our investments, we do not believe a change in interest rates would have a material effect on the fair market value of our cash, cash equivalents and short-term marketable securities.
ITEM 8.   FINANCIAL STATEMENTS AND SUPPLEMENTARY DATA
 
The following financial statements, and the related notes thereto, of Mirna Therapeutics, Inc. and the Reports of the Company’s Independent Registered Public Accounting Firm are filed as a part of this Report.


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Table of Contents

Report of Independent Registered Public Accounting Firm
 
The Board of Directors and Stockholders of
Mirna Therapeutics, Inc.
 
We have audited the accompanying balance sheets of Mirna Therapeutics, Inc. (the “Company”) as of December 31, 2016 and 2015 , and the related statements of operations, stockholders’ equity (deficit) and cash flows for each of the three years in the period ended December 31, 2016 . These financial statements are the responsibility of the Company’s management. Our responsibility is to express an opinion on these financial statements based on our audits.
 
We conducted our audits in accordance with the standards of the Public Company Accounting Oversight Board (United States). Those standards require that we plan and perform the audit to obtain reasonable assurance about whether the financial statements are free of material misstatement. We were not engaged to perform an audit of the Company’s internal control over financial reporting. Our audits included consideration of internal control over financial reporting as a basis for designing audit procedures that are appropriate in the circumstances, but not for the purpose of expressing an opinion on the effectiveness of the Company’s internal control over financial reporting. Accordingly, we express no such opinion. An audit also includes examining, on a test basis, evidence supporting the amounts and disclosures in the financial statements, assessing the accounting principles used and significant estimates made by management and evaluating the overall financial statement presentation. We believe that our audits provide a reasonable basis for our opinion.
 
In our opinion, the financial statements referred to above present fairly, in all material respects, the financial position of Mirna Therapeutics, Inc. at December 31, 2016 and 2015 , and the results of its operations and its cash flows for each of the three years in the period ended December 31, 2016 in conformity with U.S. generally accepted accounting principles.
 
/s/ Ernst & Young LLP
 
Austin, Texas
March 14, 2017

36


MIRNA THERAPEUTICS, INC.
 
Balance Sheets
 
(in thousands, except share and per share data)
 
 
December 31, 
 
December 31, 
 
 
2016
 
2015
Assets
 
 
 
 
Current Assets:
 
 
 
 
Cash and cash equivalents
 
$
16,432

 
$
89,713

Short-term marketable securities
 
44,066

 

Prepaid expenses and other current assets
 
882

 
829

Total current assets
 
61,380

 
90,542

Property and equipment, net
 
354

 
375

Restricted cash
 
2,432

 

Total assets
 
$
64,166

 
$
90,917

Liabilities and Stockholders’ Equity (Deficit)
 
 
 
 
Current Liabilities:
 
 
 
 
Accounts payable
 
$
361

 
$
3,687

Accrued expenses
 
2,400

 
2,214

Total current liabilities
 
2,761

 
5,901

Lease obligations, long-term
 
1,053

 

Total liabilities
 
$
3,814

 
$
5,901

 
 
 
 
 
Stockholders’ Equity (Deficit):
 
 
 
 
Preferred stock, $0.001 par value, 5,000,000 authorized at December 31, 2016 and 2015; 0 shares outstanding at December 31, 2016 and 2015
 

 

Common stock, $0.001 par value; 250,000,000 shares authorized at December 31, 2016 and 2015; 20,841,393 shares issued and outstanding at December 31, 2016; 20,830,555 shares issued and outstanding at December 31, 2015
 
21

 
21

Additional paid in capital
 
163,126

 
161,518

Accumulated deficit
 
(102,791
)
 
(76,523
)
Other comprehensive loss
 
(4
)
 

Total stockholders’ equity
 
60,352

 
85,016

Total liabilities and stockholders’ equity
 
$
64,166

 
$
90,917




The accompanying notes are an integral part of these financial statements.

37

Table of Contents

MIRNA THERAPEUTICS, INC.
 
Statements of Operations and Comprehensive Loss
 
(in thousands, except share and per share data)
 
 
 
Year Ended December 31,
 
 
2016
 
2015
 
2014
Operating expenses:
 
 
 
 
 
 
Research and development
 
$
13,930

 
$
18,947

 
$
10,545

General and administrative
 
8,118

 
6,080

 
3,369

Restructuring charges
 
4,442

 

 

Loss on disposal of assets
 
128

 

 

Write-off of offering costs
 

 

 
1,920

Total operating expenses
 
26,618

 
25,027

 
15,834

Other income:
 
 
 
 
 
 
Interest income
 
350

 
44

 

Net loss
 
$
(26,268
)
 
$
(24,983
)
 
$
(15,834
)
Less: Accretion and dividends on convertible preferred stock
 

 
(4,320
)
 
(2,824
)
Net loss attributable to common stockholders
 
$
(26,268
)
 
$
(29,303
)
 
$
(18,658
)
Other Comprehensive Loss:
 
 
 
 
 
 
Unrealized loss on available-for-sale securities, net of tax
 
$
(4
)
 
$

 
$

Total other comprehensive loss
 
$
(26,272
)
 
$
(29,303
)
 
$
(18,658
)
Net loss per share attributable to common stockholders—basic and diluted
 
$
(1.26
)
 
$
(5.85
)
 
$
(291.00
)
Common shares used to compute basic and diluted net loss per share attributable to common stockholders
 
20,833,963

 
5,010,323

 
64,131




The accompanying notes are an integral part of these financial statements.

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Table of Contents

MIRNA THERAPEUTICS, INC.
 
Statements of Stockholders’ Equity (Deficit)
 
(in thousands, except share amounts)
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Additional Paid-in Capital
 
Accumulated Deficit
 
Other Comprehensive Income
 
Total Stockholders Equity (Deficit)
 
 
Common Stock
 
 
 
 
 
 
Shares
 
Amount
 
 
 
 
Balance at January 1, 2014
 
2,061

 
$

 
$
890

 
$
(30,804
)
 

 
$
(29,914
)
Exercise of stock options
 
80,816

 

 
209

 

 

 
209

Issuance of common stock
 
448

 

 
4

 

 

 
4

Stock-based compensation
 

 

 
408

 

 

 
408

Series C dividends
 

 

 
(1,511
)
 
(1,313
)
 

 
(2,824
)
Net loss
 

 

 

 
(15,834
)
 

 
(15,834
)
Balance at December 31, 2014
 
83,325

 

 

 
(47,951
)
 

 
(47,951
)
Exercise of stock options
 
28,516

 
1

 
66

 

 

 
67

Stock-based compensation
 

 

 
985

 

 

 
985

Accretion of convertible preferred stock
 

 

 
(180
)
 
(269
)
 

 
(449
)
Series C & Series D dividends
 

 

 
(551
)
 
(3,320
)
 

 
(3,871
)
Conversion of preferred stock
 
11,368,742

 
11

 
100,927

 

 

 
100,938

Initial public offerings of common stock, net of offering costs of $5,021
 
6,954,962

 
7

 
43,657

 

 

 
43,664

Issuance of common stock in private placement concurrently with initial public offering, net of offering costs of $149
 
2,395,010

 
2

 
16,614

 

 

 
16,616

Net loss
 

 

 

 
(24,983
)
 

 
(24,983
)
Balance at December 31, 2015
 
20,830,555

 
21

 
161,518

 
(76,523
)
 

 
85,016

Exercise of stock options
 
5,313

 

 
9

 

 

 
9

Issuance of stock under Employee Stock Purchase Plan
 
5,525

 

 
7

 

 

 
7

Stock-based compensation
 

 

 
1,592

 

 

 
1,592

Other comprehensive loss
 

 

 

 

 
(4
)
 
(4
)
Net loss
 

 

 

 
(26,268
)
 

 
(26,268
)
Balance at December 31, 2016
 
20,841,393

 
$
21

 
$
163,126

 
$
(102,791
)
 
(4
)
 
60,352




The accompanying notes are an integral part of these financial statements.

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Table of Contents

MIRNA THERAPEUTICS, INC.
 
Statements of Cash Flows
 
(in thousands)
 
 
 
Year Ended December 31,
 
 
2016
 
2015
 
2014
Operating activities
 
 
 
 
 
 
Net loss
 
$
(26,268
)
 
$
(24,983
)
 
$
(15,834
)
Adjustment to reconcile net loss to net cash used in operating activities:
 
 
 
 
 
 
Restructuring charges
 
4,442

 

 

Depreciation and amortization
 
159

 
54

 
35

Stock-based compensation
 
1,592

 
985

 
408

Issuance of stock for services
 

 

 
4

Amortization of premiums/ discounts on marketable securities
 
260

 

 

Loss on disposal of assets
 
128

 

 

Changes in operating assets and liabilities:
 
 
 
 
 
 
Grant reimbursement and other receivables
 
(160
)
 
119

 
40

Prepaid expenses and other current assets
 
107

 
(650
)
 
(99
)
Deferred offering costs
 

 

 
105

Other noncurrent assets
 

 

 
17

Accounts payable
 
(3,264
)
 
2,816

 
189

Accrued expenses
 
(1,801
)
 
524

 
1,165

Net cash used in operating activities
 
(24,805
)
 
(21,135
)
 
(13,970
)
Investing activities
 
 
 
 
 
 
Purchases of marketable securities
 
(103,114
)
 

 

Maturities of marketable securities
 
58,784

 

 

Restricted cash
 
(2,432
)
 

 

Purchase of property and equipment
 
(1,729
)
 
(251
)
 
(102
)
Net cash used in investing activities
 
(48,491
)
 
(251
)
 
(102
)
Financing activities
 
 
 
 
 
 
Proceeds from issuance of convertible preferred stock, net of issuance costs
 

 
41,433

 

Proceeds from the issuance of common stock, net of issuance costs
 

 
60,280

 

Proceeds from the exercise of stock options
 
16

 
67

 
209

Cash provided by financing activities
 
16

 
101,780

 
209

Net increase (decrease) in cash and cash equivalents
 
(73,280
)
 
80,394

 
(13,863
)
Cash and cash equivalents at beginning of period
 
89,713

 
9,319

 
23,182

Cash and cash equivalents at end of period
 
$
16,432

 
$
89,713

 
$
9,319

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Supplemental disclosure of non-cash investing and financing activities
 
 
 
 
 
 
Conversion of preferred stock to common stock
 
$

 
$
100,938

 
$




The accompanying notes are an integral part of these financial statements.

40

Table of Contents

MIRNA THERAPEUTICS, INC.
 
Notes to Financial Statements
 
1. Organization 

Nature of business
 
Mirna Therapeutics, Inc. (“Mirna” or “the Company”) is a biopharmaceutical company focused on microRNA-based oncology therapeutics. The Company was incorporated in Delaware in December 2007 as a wholly‑owned subsidiary of Asuragen, Inc. (“Asuragen”) and was spun out to existing Asuragen stockholders in December 2009. Following the close of the Company's Phase 1 clinical trial of MRX34 in September 2016, the Company is evaluating its strategic alternatives focusing on enhancing stockholder value, including the possibility of a merger or sale of the Company, and has discontinued further research and development activities (see Note 13) to reduce operating expenses while it evaluates these opportunities. The Company is located in Austin, Texas. 

In October 2015, the Company sold  6,250,000  shares of common stock, $ 0.001  par value per share, in an underwritten public offering (the “IPO”) and  2,395,010  shares of common stock in a concurrent private placement, with both offerings at a price of $ 7.00  per share.  The underwriters of the IPO purchased an additional  704,962  shares of common stock pursuant to their option to purchase additional shares.  The Company’s aggregate net proceeds from the IPO were $ 43.7 million , after deducting the transaction offering costs and the underwriting discounts incurred. The Company also received net proceeds of $ 16.7 million  after deducting the offering transaction costs from the concurrent private placement. 

The Company continues to be subject to a number of risks common to companies in similar stages of development. Principal among these risks are uncertainties of technological innovations, dependence on key individuals, development of the same or similar technological innovations by the Company’s competitors and protection of proprietary technology. The Company believes that its cash, cash equivalents and marketable securities of  $60.5 million  at December 31, 2016 will enable the Company to maintain its current and planned operations for at least the next  twelve months .
 
2. Summary of Significant Accounting Policies
 
Use of estimates
 
The preparation of financial statements in conformity with U.S. generally accepted accounting principles requires the Company’s management to make estimates and assumptions that affect the amounts reported in the financial statements and accompanying notes. Actual results could differ from those estimates.
 
Prior to the IPO on October 6, 2015, the Company utilized significant estimates and assumptions in determining the fair value of its common stock. The board of directors determined the estimated fair value of the Company’s common stock based on a number of objective and subjective factors, including external market conditions affecting the biotechnology industry sector and the prices at which the Company sold shares of convertible preferred stock, the superior rights and preferences of securities senior to its common stock at the time and the likelihood of achieving a liquidity event, such as an initial public offering or sale of the Company.
 
Prior to its IPO, the Company utilized various valuation methodologies in accordance with the framework of the American Institute of Certified Public Accountants, or AICPA, Audit and Accounting Practice Aid Series: Valuation of Privately Held Company Equity Securities Issued as Compensation , or the AICPA Practice Aid, to estimate the fair value of its common stock. The methodologies included the Option Pricing Method utilizing the Backsolve Method (a form of the market approach defined in the AICPA Practice Aid) and the Probability‑Weighted Expected Return Method based upon the probability of occurrence of certain future liquidity events such as an initial public offering or sale of the Company. Each valuation methodology includes estimates and assumptions that require the Company’s judgment. Significant changes to the key assumptions used in the valuations could result in different fair values of common stock at each valuation date.
 
Research and development costs
 
Research and development costs consist of costs the Company incurred for its own research and development activities and for preclinical studies and clinical trials. Research and development costs include salaries and personnel‑related costs, consulting fees, fees paid for contract research services, the costs of laboratory equipment and facilities, license fees and other external costs. These research and development costs are expensed when incurred.

41


 
The Company records upfront and milestone payments made to third parties under licensing arrangements as an expense. Upfront payments are recorded when incurred and milestone payments are recorded when the specific milestone has been achieved.
 
The Company accounts for government grants as a reduction of research and development expenses. Government grants are recorded at the time the related research and development costs have been incurred by the Company and, accordingly, become eligible for reimbursement. The Company accrues for government grants that have been earned but not yet received.
 
Nonrefundable advance payments for goods or services to be received in the future for use in research and development activities are deferred and capitalized. The capitalized amounts are expensed as the related goods are delivered or the services are performed.
 
Stock‑based compensation
 
The Company accounts for its stock‑based compensation awards in accordance with ASC Topic 718, Compensation—Stock Compensation (“ASC 718”). ASC 718 requires all stock‑based payments to employees, including grants of employee stock options, to be recognized in the statements of operations based on their grant date fair values. For stock options granted to employees and to members of the board of directors for their services on the board of directors, the Company estimates the grant date fair value of each option award using the Black‑Scholes option‑pricing model. The use of the Black‑Scholes option‑pricing model requires management to make assumptions with respect to the expected term of the option, the expected volatility of the common stock consistent with the expected life of the option, risk‑free interest rates and expected dividend yields of the common stock. For awards subject to service‑based vesting conditions, the Company recognizes stock‑based compensation expense, net of estimated forfeitures, equal to the grant date fair value of stock options on a straight‑line basis over the requisite service period.
 
Clinical trial and pre-clinical study accruals
 
Prior to the discontinuation of the Company's research and development activities, the Company estimated pre-clinical study and clinical trial expenses pursuant to contracts with research institutions and contract research organizations that conducted and managed pre-clinical studies and clinical trials on the Company’s behalf. These estimates were based on the level of service performed and the underlying agreement. Further, the Company accrued expenses related to clinical trials based on the level of patient enrollment and other activities according to the related agreements. The Company monitored patient enrollment levels and other activities to the extent reasonably possible and adjusted estimates accordingly. If actual costs incurred or the timing of services varied from the Company's estimate, the Company adjusted the accrual accordingly. On September 20, 2016 the Company announced its decision to close the ongoing Phase 1 study of MRX34 and halted enrollment and dosing of patients in the study.
 
Restructuring

Following the closing of the Phase 1 MRX34 clinical trial, the Company implemented a workforce reduction in the fourth quarter of 2016 to reduce operating expenses while it evaluates strategic alternatives. The majority of severance and benefits payments were settled during the first quarter of 2017. The Company entered retention agreements with key employees necessary to close the Phase 1 clinical trial of MRX34 if employees remained with the Company until June 30, 2017 or were terminated by the Company without cause prior to such date. The Company has recognized the restructuring liability for such retention agreements over the employees' service period.

In accordance with ASC 420, Exit and Disposal Cost Obligations, the Company has also recognized contract termination costs in connection with a leased property it intended to occupy as its corporate headquarters and research facility, as well as a temporary lab in use prior to the discontinuation of the Company's research and development activities. In addition, the Company has recognized asset impairments related to its lab equipment used in the Phase 1 clinical trial, construction in process, and other property and equipment for which the Company does not expect to receive a future benefit.

Amounts recorded in restructuring charges can result from a complex series of judgments about future events and uncertainties and can heavily rely on estimates and assumptions.


42


Income taxes
 
Income taxes are recorded in accordance with ASC 740, Accounting for Income Taxes (“ASC 740”), which provides for deferred taxes using an asset and liability approach. The Company recognizes deferred tax assets and liabilities for the expected future tax consequences of events that have been included in the financial statements or tax returns. The Company determines its deferred tax assets and liabilities based on differences between financial reporting and tax bases of assets and liabilities, which are measured using the enacted tax rates and laws that will be in effect when the differences are expected to reverse. Valuation allowances are provided if, based upon the weight of available evidence, it is more likely than not that some or all of the deferred tax assets will not be realized.
 
The Company accounts for uncertain tax positions in accordance with the provisions of ASC 740. When uncertain tax positions exist, the Company recognizes the tax benefit of tax positions to the extent that the benefit will more likely than not be realized. The determination as to whether the tax benefit will more likely than not be realized is based upon the technical merits of the tax position as well as consideration of the available facts and circumstances. As of December 31, 2016 and 2015 , the Company does not have any significant uncertain tax positions.
 
Comprehensive loss
 
Comprehensive loss is composed of net loss and other comprehensive income or loss. Other comprehensive loss consists of unrealized gains and losses on marketable securities.
 
Cash and cash equivalents
 
The Company considers highly liquid investments with a maturity of three months or less when purchased to be cash equivalents. Cash equivalents, which consist primarily of cash, money market funds and U.S. treasury and agency securities with a maturity of less than 90 days when purchased, are stated at fair value.
 
Concentrations of credit risk
 
Financial instruments that potentially subject the Company to credit risk consist primarily of cash and cash equivalents and short-term marketable securities. The Company holds these investments in U.S. treasury and agency securities and highly‑rated corporate debt securities, and limits the amounts of credit exposure to any one financial institution. These amounts at times may exceed federally insured limits. The Company has not experienced any credit losses in such accounts and does not believe it is exposed to any significant credit risk on these funds. The Company has no off‑balance sheet concentrations of credit risk, such as foreign currency exchange contracts, option contracts or other hedging arrangements.

At December 31, 2016, available-for-sale securities are invested in U.S. treasury and agency securities and highly-rated corporate debt securities that had a maturity date of three months or greater when acquired.  As discussed in Note 3, the fair value of these securities was $ 44.1 million , or $ 4,000 less than their original par value purchase price.
 
Fair value measurements
 
The Company records money market funds at fair value. ASC Topic 820, Fair Value Measurements and Disclosures , establishes a fair value hierarchy for those instruments measured at fair value that distinguishes between assumptions based on market data (observable inputs) and the Company’s own assumptions (unobservable inputs). The hierarchy consists of three levels: 
Level 1—Unadjusted quoted prices in active markets for identical assets or liabilities.
Level 2—Quoted prices for similar assets and liabilities in active markets, quoted prices in markets that are not active, or inputs which are observable, either directly or indirectly, for substantially the full term of the asset or liability.
Level 3—Unobservable inputs that reflect the Company’s own assumptions about the assumptions market participants would use in pricing the asset or liability in which there is little, if any, market activity for the asset or liability at the measurement date.
 
The carrying amounts reflected in the balance sheets for cash, prepaid expenses and other current assets, accounts payable, and accrued expenses approximate their fair values at December 31, 2016 and 2015 , due to their short‑term nature.
 

43


There have been no changes to the valuation methods during the years ended December 31, 2016 and 2015 . The Company evaluates transfers between levels at the end of each reporting period. There were no transfers of assets or liabilities between Level 1, Level 2 or Level 3 during the years ended December 31, 2016 or 2015 .

Marketable securities

Marketable securities with maturities at purchase beyond one year, but less than twenty-four months, may be classified as short-term marketable securities based on their highly liquid nature and because such marketable securities represent the investment of cash that is available for current operations. Marketable securities with maturities at purchase beyond twenty-four months are classified as non-current. Available-for-sale securities are maintained by an investment manager and may consist of U.S. Treasury securities and government agency securities and corporate debt securities. Available-for-sale securities are carried at fair value with the unrealized gains and losses included in other comprehensive loss as a component of stockholders’ equity until realized. Any premium or discount arising at purchase is amortized and/or accreted to interest income and/or expense over the life of the instrument. Realized gains and losses are determined using the specific identification method and are included in other income.

If any adjustment to fair value reflects a decline in value of the investment, the Company considers all available evidence to evaluate the extent to which the decline is “other-than-temporary” and, if so, mark the investment to market through a charge to the Company’s statement of operations and comprehensive loss.

Restricted cash

Restricted cash consists of cash amounts held for specific or limited purposes and, therefore, not available for general operating activities. In June 2016, the Company secured a standby letter of credit of $ 2.4 million  for the benefit of the landlord for the Company's lease of approximately 23,578 square feet of office and laboratory space in the event of default. The restricted cash consists of cash providing security under the terms of the lease described in Note 13.

Property and equipment
 
Property and equipment consist of laboratory equipment, computer equipment and software, leasehold improvements, furniture and fixtures and office equipment. Property and equipment are stated at cost and depreciated using the straight‑line method over the estimated useful lives of the respective assets:
 
 
 
 
●    Laboratory equipment
    
5-7 years
●    Computer equipment and software
 
3 years
●    Leasehold improvements
 
shorter of asset’s useful life or remaining term of lease
●    Furniture and fixtures
 
5 years
●    Office equipment
 
5 years
 
Costs of major additions and betterments are capitalized; maintenance and repairs, which do not improve or extend the life of the respective assets, are charged to expense as incurred. Upon retirement or sale, the cost of the disposed asset and the related accumulated depreciation are removed from the accounts and the resulting gain or loss is recognized.
 
Impairment of long‑lived assets
 
The Company periodically evaluates its long‑lived assets for potential impairment in accordance with ASC Topic 360, Property, Plant and Equipment . Potential impairment is assessed when there is evidence that events or changes in circumstances indicate that the carrying amount of an asset may not be recovered. Recoverability of these assets is assessed based on undiscounted expected future cash flows from the assets, considering a number of factors, including past operating results, budgets and economic projections, market trends and product development cycles. If impairments are identified, assets are written down to their estimated fair value. The Company recognized an impairment charge of $1.4 million for the year ended December 31, 2016 .
 

44


Offering costs
 
Deferred offering costs, which consist of direct incremental legal and professional accounting fees relating to preferred stock private placements and initial public offerings, are capitalized. The deferred offering costs are offset against the proceeds from the offering upon the consummation of the offering. In 2014, the Company’s initial public offering was delayed and the deferred offering costs for that offering in the amount of $1,920,000 were expensed.
 
Segment and geographic information
 
Operating segments are identified as components of an enterprise about which separate discrete financial information is available for evaluation by the chief operating decision maker, or decision making group, in making decisions on how to allocate resources and assess performance. The Company’s chief operating decision maker is the chief executive officer. The Company and the chief operating decision maker view the Company’s operations and manage its business as one operating segment. The Company operates in only one geographic segment.
 
Net loss per share attributable to common stockholders
 
Prior to the IPO, the Company used the two‑class method to compute net loss per common share attributable to common stockholders because the Company has issued securities, other than common stock, that contractually entitle the holders to participate in dividends and earnings of the Company. The two‑class method requires earnings for the period to be allocated between common stock and participating securities based upon their respective rights to receive distributed and undistributed earnings. Historically, holders of the Company’s Series A, Series B, Series B‑1, Series C and Series D convertible preferred stock were entitled, on a pari passu basis, to receive dividends when, as and if declared by the board of directors, prior and in preference to any declaration or payment of any dividend on the common stock until such time as the total dividends paid on each share of Series C and Series D convertible preferred stock is equal to its cumulative dividends. The Series A, Series B and Series B‑1 convertible preferred stock would also be entitled to the dividend amount paid to common stockholders on an as‑if‑converted‑to‑common stock basis. As a result, all series of the Company’s convertible preferred stock were considered participating securities. All of the Company’s outstanding preferred stock was converted to common stock in connection with the IPO in October 2015.
 
Under the two‑class method, for periods with net income, basic net income per common share is computed by dividing the net income attributable to common stockholders by the weighted‑average number of shares of common stock outstanding during the period. Net income attributable to common stockholders is computed by subtracting from net income the portion of current year earnings that the participating securities would have been entitled to receive pursuant to their dividend rights had all of the year’s earnings been distributed. No such adjustment to earnings is made during periods with a net loss, as the holders of the participating securities have no obligation to fund losses. Diluted net loss per common share is computed by using the weighted‑average number of shares of common stock outstanding. Due to net losses for the years ended December 31, 2016 , 2015 , and 2014 , basic and diluted net loss per share attributable to common stockholders were the same, as the effect of all potentially dilutive securities would have been anti‑dilutive.
 
Recent accounting pronouncements
 
In March 2016, the Financial Accounting Standards Board (FASB) issued ASU 2016-09,  Compensation - Stock Compensation (Topic 718): Improvements to Employee Share Based Payment Accounting  ("ASU 2016-09") as part of the FASB simplification initiative. The new standard provides for changes to accounting for stock compensation including 1) excess tax benefits and tax deficiencies related to share-based payment awards will be recognized as income tax expense in the reporting period in which they occur; 2) excess tax benefits will be classified as an operating activity in the statement of cash flow; 3) the option to elect to estimate forfeitures or account for them when they occur; and 4) increase tax withholding requirements threshold to qualify for equity classification. ASU 2016-09 is effective for public companies for annual periods, and interim periods within those annual periods, beginning after December 15, 2016, and early adoption is permitted. The Company is currently evaluating the impact that ASU 2016-09 will have on the financial statements.
 
In February 2016, the FASB issued ASU 2016-02,  Leases (Topic 842) . The new standard requires the recognition of assets and liabilities arising from lease transactions on the balance sheet and the disclosure of key information about leasing arrangements. Accordingly, a lessee will recognize a lease asset for its right to use the underlying asset and a lease liability for the corresponding lease obligation. Both the asset and liability will initially be measured at the present value of the future minimum lease payments over the lease term. Subsequent measurement, including the presentation of expenses and cash flows, will depend on the classification of the lease as either a finance or an operating lease. Initial costs directly attributable to negotiating and arranging the lease will be included in the asset. For leases with a term of twelve months or less, a lessee can

45


make an accounting policy election by class of underlying asset to not recognize an asset and corresponding liability. Lessees will also be required to provide additional qualitative and quantitative disclosures regarding the amount, timing and uncertainty of cash flows arising from leases. These disclosures are intended to supplement the amounts recorded in the financial statements and provide additional information about the nature of an organization’s leasing activities. The new standard is effective for fiscal years beginning after December 15, 2018, and interim periods within those years, with early adoption permitted. In transition, lessees are required to recognize and measure leases at the beginning of the earliest period presented using a modified retrospective approach. The transition guidance also provides specific guidance for sale and leaseback transactions, build-to-suit leases and amounts previously recognized in accordance with the business combinations guidance for leases. The Company is currently evaluating our expected adoption method and the impact of this new standard on the financial statements.
 
In August 2014, the FASB issued ASU 2014-15 , Disclosure of Uncertainties about an Entity’s Ability to Continue as a Going Concern . The ASU is intended to define management’s responsibility to evaluate whether there is substantial doubt about an organization’s ability to continue as a going concern and to provide related footnote disclosures. For all entities, the ASU is effective for annual periods ending after December 15, 2016 and interim periods within annual periods beginning after December 15, 2016. The Company adopted this standard in 2016. 
 
3. Marketable Securities
 
The following table summarizes the available-for-sale securities held at December 31, 2016 (in thousands):

December 31, 2016
 
Amortized Cost
 
Unrealized Gains
 
Unrealized Losses
 
Fair Value
U.S. government agency securities and treasuries
 
$
42,516

 
$
4

 
$
(8
)
 
$
42,512

Corporate debt securities
 
1,554

 

 

 
1,554

Total available-for-sale securities
 
$
44,070

 
$
4

 
$
(8
)
 
$
44,066


The Company did no t have available for sale securities at December 31, 2015. There were no available for sale securities held as of December 31, 2016 with maturities greater than one year.
 
4. Fair Value Measurements

The following sets forth the Company's assets that are measured at fair value on a recurring basis as of December 31, 2016 and December 31, 2015:


46


 
 
Total
 
Quoted
prices in
active
markets
(Level 1)
 
Significant
other
observable
inputs
(Level 2)
 
Significant
unobservable
inputs
(Level 3)
December 31, 2016
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Assets:
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Cash and Cash Equivalents
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Cash
 
$
2,785

 
$
2,785

 

 

Money market funds
 
9,647

 
$
9,647

 

 

US government agency securities and treasuries
 
4,000

 

 
4,001

 


Total cash and cash equivalents
 
16,432

 
12,432

 
4,001

 

Marketable securities
 
 

 
 

 
 

 
 

U.S. government agency securities and treasuries
 
42,512

 

 
42,512

 

Corporate debt securities
 
1,554

 

 
1,554

 

Total marketable securities
 
44,066

 

 
44,066

 

     Restricted cash
 
2,432

 
2,432

 

 

Total assets
 
$
62,930

 
$
14,864

 
$
48,067

 
$

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
December 31, 2015
 
 

 
 

 
 

 
 

Assets:
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Money Market Funds
 
89,713

 
89,713

 

 

Total Assets
 
$
89,713

 
$
89,713

 
$

 
$


Cash and cash equivalents

The Company considers all highly liquid securities with original